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STUDIES AVAILABLE OF SENNA

Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov

1. Purification and characterization of a novel cholesterol-lowering protein from the seeds of Senna obtusifolia.

Li C, Li M, Chang W, Guo B.

College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology of Plant Development, Guangzhou, 510631, China, lich@scnu.edu.cn.

"Juemingzi", a source of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been demonstrated to play a role in decreasing serum cholesterol concentration. In this study, a novel protein, which has shown an inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, was isolated from Senna obtusifolia L. seed by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The novel protein's molecular mass was 19.7 kD and its pI was 4.80. Both SDS-PAGE and isoelectric-focusing (IEF) revealed a single Coomassie brilliant blue stained band, indicating that the novel protein was a single peptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was IPYISASFPLNIEFLPSE, which had no similarity with any other protein sequences in the NCBI protein database. Circular dichroism (CD) signals indicated that S. obtusifolia seed protein contained 12.5% alpha-helix, 55.6% beta-sheet, and 31.9% random coil.

PMID: 18989645 [PubMed - in process]

2. Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.

Alabi OJ, Ogbe FO, Bandyopadhyay R, Lava Kumar P, Dixon AG, Hughes J, Naidu RA.

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, 24106 N. Bunn Rd, Prosser, WA 99350, USA.

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava.

Publication Types:
PMID: 18661095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. Portal vein thrombosis related to Cassia angustifolia.

Soyuncu S, Cete Y, Nokay AE.

Faculty of Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

Introduction. Cassia angustifolia (Senna), used as a laxative, is a plant from the Fabaceae family. It includes hydroxyanthracene glycosides, also known as Senna Sennoside. These glycosides stimulate the peristalsis of the colon and alter colonic absorption and secretion resulting in fluid accumulation and expulsion. In the literature, there are repots illustrating the hepatotoxic effects of Cassia angustifolia but there is no report of portal vein thrombosis caused by Cassia Angustifolia. Case Report. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a five-day history of worsening epigastric pain, anorexia, episodic vomiting, and intermittent fever. She reported that she had boiled dried senna leaves she had bought from herbalists and drank approximately 200 mL daily for two years. Color Doppler screening found an echogen thrombus obliterating portal vein bifurcation and the right branch. The lumen was obstructed at this level and there was no blood flow through it. Treatment with thrombolytics was unsuccessful. Discussion. Severe hepatotoxicity senna use is unusual. The cause of senna-related hepatotoxicity is unclear but could be explained by the exposure of the liver to unusual amounts of toxic metabolites of anthraquinone glycosides. Conclusion. Chronic use of Cassia angustifolia may rarely be associated with portal vein thrombosis.

PMID: 18608307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. [Determination of five primary chemical constituents in Cassia angustifolia by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Wu QP, Wang ZJ, Tang LY, Fu MH, He Y, Fang J, Gong QF.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determining the content of primary chemical constituents in the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. METHOD: The HPLC with Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column was used , acetonitrile-1% acetic acid (10:90-15: 85-18: 82-20: 80-25: 75) in a gradient manner was used as a mobile phase, with flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1), column temperature at 40 degrees C and detection wavelength at 270 nm. RESULT: The results showed that 5 effective components all separated well and showed good linearity. CONCLUSION: The method was proved to be rapid, sensitive, accurate, credible and repeatable. It can be applied to quality control of Folium Sennae.

Publication Types: PMID: 18533485 [PubMed - in process]

5. Muscle degeneration in chicks caused by Senna occidentalis seeds.

Haraguchi M, Gorniak SL, Calore EE, Cavaliere MJ, Raspantini PC, Calore NM, Dagli ML.

Section of Pharmacology, Division of Animal Biology, Biological Institute of Sao Paulo.

Acute intoxication with Senna occidentalis seeds was studied in chicks. Seven-day-old chicks were fed ground dried seeds of this plant mixed with regular chicken ration at a concentration of 4% by weight for 15 days. Feed intake and body weight were markedly affected and a high level of lethality was observed. Necropsy examination of chicks from the experimental group revealed paleness and atrophy of thoracic muscles. Degenerative and necrotic fibres were observed in skeletal muscle by histological examination. Muscle histochemistry showed accumulation of lipids and numerous acid phosphatase-positive muscle fibres. Electron microscopy revealed atrophic muscle fibres, lipid storage, dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria.

PMID: 18484012 [PubMed - in process]


6. Lipase production in solid-state fermentation monitoring biomass growth of aspergillus niger using digital image processing.

Dutra JC, da C Terzi S, Bevilaqua JV, Damaso MC, Couri S, Langone MA, Senna LF.

Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

Publication Types : PMID: 18401753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Bidens pilosa L. exhibits high sensitivity to coumarin in comparison with three other weed species.

Pergo EM, Abrahim D, Soares da Silva PC, Kern KA, Da Silva LJ, Voll E, Ishii-Iwamoto EL.


Laboratory of Biological Oxidations, Department of Biochemistry, University of Maringá, 87020900 Maringá, Brazil.

Nine natural plant compounds were screened for phytotoxicity to Bidens pilosa L. a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. The sensitivity of three other weed species to coumarin, the most active identified compound, was also evaluated. Coumarin, at a concentration of 500 microM, had little effect on germination and growth of Senna obtusifolia L., Euphorbia heterophylla L., and Ipomoea grandifolia L. when compared with its effects on B. pilosa L. In a concentration range of 10-100 microM, coumarin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of B. pilosa L. The measurements of some parameters of energy metabolism revealed that coumarin-treated root tissues exhibited characteristics of seedlings in an earlier stage of growth, including higher respiratory activity and higher activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and lipoxygenase. These results suggest that coumarin inhibition of germination and growth of B. pilosa L. was not a consequence of an impairment of energy metabolism. Rather, it seems to act as a cytostatic agent, retarding germination. At concentrations above 50 microM, coumarin increased lipoxygenase activity and the level of conjugated dienes of root extracts, suggesting that it may induce oxidative stress in seedling roots.

Publication Types: PMID: 18338136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. [Chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia]

[Article in Chinese]

Wu QP, Wang ZJ, Fu MH, Tang LY, He Y, Fang J, Gong QF.

Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. METHODS: Compounds were isolated and repeatedly purified by chromatographic techniques on silica gel column. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. RESULTS: eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia, and identified as tinnevellin glycoside(I), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-gentiobioside(II), apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside(III), emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), kaempferol(V), aloe emodin(VI), D-3-O-methylinositol(VII), sucrose(VIII). CONCLUSION: Compounds III, VII and VIII are isolated from the plant for the first time.

Publication Types: PMID: 18300495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

Reddy KN, Rimando AM, Duke SO, Nandula VK.

Southern Weed Science Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 350, Stoneville, Mississippi 38776, USA. krishna.reddy@ars.usda.gov

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

PMID: 18298069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Laxative effect of agarwood leaves and its mechanism.

Hara H, Ise Y, Morimoto N, Shimazawa M, Ichihashi K, Ohyama M, Iinuma M.


Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan. hidehara@gifu-pu.ac.jp

We investigated the laxative activity of an extract of agarwood leaves from Aquilaria sinensis. The laxative activity was measured in mice by counting the stool frequency and stool weight, and the drugs were orally administered. An acetone extract of agarwood leaves and senna (a representative laxative drug) both increased the stool frequency and weight, but a methanol extract did not. The laxative effect of the acetone extract was milder than that of the anthraquinoid laxative, senna, and the former did not induce diarrhea as a severe side effect. We identified the main constituent contributing to the laxative effect of the acetone extract as genkwanin 5-O-beta-primeveroside (compound 4). Compound 4 strengthened the spontaneous motility and induced contraction in the ileum. This ileal contraction induced by compound 4 was inhibited by atropine, but not by azasetron, suggesting that the effect of compound 4 was mediated by acetylcholine receptors, and not by serotonin. The laxative mechanism for compound 4 may in part involve stimulation of intestinal motility via acetylcholine receptors.

Publication Types: PMID: 18256503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. [Studies on chemical constituents of leaves of Cassia angustifolia]

[Article in Chinese]

He WF, Lu JC, Yu XM, Ding YM.

Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, China. wenfeihe@yahoo.com.cn

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. METHODS: Solvents extraction and various chromatographic methods were applied to separate and purify its constituents. The structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral analysis. RESULTS: Six compounds were obtained and identified as cholesterol (I), kampferol-3-rutinoside (II), calyxanthone (III), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (IV), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (V), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (VI). CONCLUSION: Six compounds ( I -VI) are obtained from this plant for the first time.

Publication Types: PMID: 18236748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Pulvinus functional traits in relation to leaf movements: a light and transmission electron microscopy study of the vascular system.

Rodrigues TM, Machado SR.

São Paulo State University - UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Botany, PO Box 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil. tatiane@ibb.unesp.br

Previous studies on legume pulvini suggest that the vascular system plays an important role in the redistribution of ions and transmission of stimuli during leaf's movements. However, the number of anatomical and ultrastructural studies is limited to few species. The aim of this paper is to investigate the structure and cellular features of the pulvinus vascular system of nine legume species from Brazilian cerrado, looking for structural traits pointing to its participation in the leaf's movements. Samples were excised from the medial region of opened pulvinus of Bauhinia rufa, Copaifera langsdorffii, Senna rugosa (Caesalpinioideae), Andira humilis, Dalbergia miscolobium, Zornia diphylla (Faboideae), Mimosa rixosa, Mimosa flexuosa and Stryphnodendron polyphyllum (Mimosoideae), and were prepared following light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemical standard techniques. The vascular system occupies a central position, comprises phloem and xylem and is delimited by a living sheath of septate fibers in all the species studied. This living cells sheath connects the cortex to the vascular tissues via numerous plasmodesmata. The absence of fibers and sclereids, the presence of phenolic idioblasts and the abundance and diversity of protein inclusions in the sieve tube members are remarkable features of the phloem. Pitted vessel elements, parenchyma cells with abundant cytoplasm and living fibriform elements characterize the xylem. The lack of lignified tissues and extensive symplastic continuity by plasmodesmata are remarkable features of the vascular system of pulvini of the all studied species.

Publication Types: PMID: 17950612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

Guézou A, Pozo P, Buddenhagen C.

Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador.

As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum).

Publication Types:  PMID: 17940606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2002516


14. Assessment of antimutagenic and genotoxic potential of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract using in vitro assays.

Silva CR, Monteiro MR, Rocha HM, Ribeiro AF, Caldeira-de-Araujo A, Leitão AC, Bezerra RJ, Pádula M.

Laboratório de Análise de Toxicidade em Fitoterápicos, Departamento de Biofísica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030, Brazil.

Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as a laxative, although potential side effects, such as toxicity and genotoxicity, have been reported. This study evaluated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of senna aqueous extract (SAE) by means of four experimental assays: inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures; bacterial growth inhibition; reverse mutation test (Mutoxitest) and DNA strand break analysis in plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrated that SAE produces single and double strand breaks in plasmid DNA in a cell free system. On the other hand, SAE was not cytotoxic or mutagenic to Escherichia coli strains tested. In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE.

Publication Types: PMID: 17826029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae.

Manda H, Gouagna LC, Foster WA, Jackson RR, Beier JC, Githure JI, Hassanali A.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya. hmanda@mbita.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: A previous study showed for Anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western Kenya. The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity. METHODS: Groups of mosquitoes were separately given ad libitum opportunity to feed on five of the more preferred plant species (Hamelia patens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Senna didymobotrya, and Tecoma stans) and one of the less preferred species (Lantana camara). The mosquitoes were monitored daily for survival. Sugar solution (glucose 6%) and water were used as controls. In addition, the fecundity of mosquitoes on each plant after (i) only one blood meal (number of eggs oviposited), and (ii) after three consecutive blood meals (proportion of females ovipositing, number of eggs oviposited and hatchability of eggs), was determined. The composition and concentration of sugar in the fed-on parts of each plant species were determined using gas chromatography. Using SAS statistical package, tests for significant difference of the fitness values between mosquitoes exposed to different plant species were conducted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Anopheles gambiae that had fed on four of the five more preferred plant species (T. stans, S. didymobotrya, R. communis and H. patens, but not P. hysterophorus) lived longer and laid more eggs after one blood meal, when compared with An. gambiae that had fed on the least preferred plant species L. camara. When given three consecutive blood-meals, the percentage of females that oviposited, but not the number of eggs laid, was significantly higher for mosquitoes that had previously fed on the four more preferred plant species. Total sugar concentration in the preferred plant parts was significantly correlated with survival and with the proportion of females that laid eggs. This effect was associated mainly with three sugar types, namely glucose, fructose, and gulose. Except for P. hysterophorus, the results suggest that feeding by mosquitoes on preferred plant species under natural conditions results in higher fitness-related benefits, and that the sugar content in preferred plant parts is largely responsible for these effects.

Publication Types: PMID: 17711580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2034389



16. Cassia occidentalis poisoning as the probable cause of hepatomyoencephalopathy in children in western Uttar Pradesh.

Vashishtha VM, Kumar A, John TJ, Nayak NC.

Mangla Hospital, Bijnor (UP), and Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. vmv@manglahospital.org

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recurrent annual outbreaks of acute encephalopathy illness affecting young children have been reported for several years in many districts of western Uttar Pradesh (UP). Our earlier investigations over three consecutive years (2002-2005) proved that these outbreaks were due to a fatal multi-system disease (hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome) probably caused by some phytotoxin and not due to viral encephalitis as believed so far. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the risk, if any, from various environmental factors and also to identify the putative toxic plant responsible for development of this syndrome. METHODS: Eighteen cases with acute hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome admitted in 2005 in a secondary care paediatric hospital of Bijnor district of western UP were included in the study. Three age-matched controls were selected for each case. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed and applied to all 18 cases and 54 controls. All interviews were conducted within one week of discharge or death of each case. Quantitative data were analyzed using the relevant established statistical tests. RESULTS: Parents of 8 (44.4%) cases gave a definite history of their children eating beans of Cassia occidentalis weed before falling ill, compared with 3 (5.6% controls), the odds ratio being 12.9 (95% CI 2.6-88.8, P<0.001). History of pica was the other associated factor with the disease, odds ratio 5.20 (95% CI 1.4-19.5, P<0.01). No other factor was found significantly associated with the disease. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Consumption of C. occidentalis beans probably caused these outbreaks, described earlier as hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks.

PMID: 17704552 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


17. Cassia occidentalis poisoning causes fatal coma in children in western Uttar Pradesh.

Vashishtha VM, Kumar A, John TJ, Nayak NC.

Mangla Hospital, Shakti Chowk, Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh 246 701, India. vmv@manglahospital.org

We investigated cases of the annual seasonal outbreaks of acute hepato-myo-encephalopathy in young children in western Uttar Pradesh for causal association with Cassia occidentalis poisoning, by a prospective survey in 2006. During September-October homes of 10 consecutive cases were visited and history of eating Cassia beans was obtained in all. Nine children died within 4-5 days. There appears to be an etiological association between consumption of Cassia occidentalis beans and acute hepato-myo-encephalopathy.

PMID: 17684305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


18. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Rachathevi, Bangkok, Thailand. scmtd@mahidol.ac.th

The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Thai medicinal plants on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes in terms of free radical scavenging and cytokine reducing properties. P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay. The result showed that Garcinia mangostana possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Houttuynia cordata, Eupatorium odoratum, and Senna alata had a moderate antioxidant effect. In addition, Garcinia mangostana extracts could reduce the TNF-alpha production as determined by ELISA. Garcinia mangostana was highly effective in scavenging free radicals and was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study has identified the promising source of anti-inflammatory agent which could be useful in treatment of acne vulgaris.

Publication Types: PMID: 17644272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Knowledges about herbal products among subjects on warfarin therapy and patient-physician relationship: a pilot study.

Cuzzolin L, Francini-Pesenti F, Zaffani S, Brocadello F, Pengo V, Bassi A, Benoni G.


Department of Medicine & Public Health, Section of Pharmacology, University of Verona, Italy. laura.cuzzolin@univr.it

PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to analyse behaviours and patient-physician relationship about phytotherapy among a sample of Italian patients on warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation. METHODS: During a 4-month study period, interviews of patients on warfarin therapy, followed regularly in the medical laboratories to monitor INR values, were conducted on the basis of a pre-structured 25-item questionnaire. RESULTS: Among a study population of 294 patients, 69 subjects reported to have been taking one or more phytotherapic products in the last year in combination with warfarin. Users were mostly in the age group >50 years and had a low level of education. Five out of 69 patients reported side effects, while 16/69 referred an unstable INR value. The majority of our subjects considered phytotherapy useful and without risks. CONCLUSIONS: The present survey highlights the potential risk of confidence with the 'natural world', the lack of discussion on this argument among health care providers and patients on warfarin therapy and the need to monitor strictly the INR value. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17615601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Chemical basis of plant leaf movement.

Ueda M, Nakamura Y.

Department of Chemistry, Tohoku University, Aramakiaza-Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578 Japan. ueda@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

Nyctinastic plants open and close leaves with a circadian rhythm. Here we discuss chemical aspects of the mechanism of nyctinastic leaf movement. Nyctinastic plants from five different genera are known to contain species-specific leaf-opening and leaf-closing factors. The relative concentrations of leaf-closing and leaf-opening factors of the nyctinastic plant Phyllanthus urinaria change circadianly, suggesting that nyctinastic movement is regulated by two classes of circadianly regulated factors with opposing functions. A closing and an opening factor of Albizzia, when linked to a fluorescent dye, both specifically labeled motor cells of pluvini. A membrane fraction of pluvini contains proteins of 210 and 180 kDa that bind to a leaf-opening factor of Cassia mimosoides. The molecular identification of these proteins is underway.

Publication Types: PMID: 17566057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Effect of Senna occidentalis seeds on immunity in broiler chickens.

Hueza IM, Latorre AO, Raspantini PC, Raspantini LE, Mariano-Souza DP, Guerra JL, Górniak SL.


Research Center for Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, University of São Paulo, CEP 05508-900, Brazil.

This study investigated possible immunotoxic effects of Senna occidentalis (So) seeds incorporated in broiler chicken rations at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75%), for 28 or 42 days. We evaluated innate immune function (macrophage activities of spreading, phagocytosis, peroxide and nitric oxide production) and acquired immune function (humoral and cellular immune responses), as well as lymphoid organ weights and pathology. There was enhanced macrophage activity, as hydrogen peroxide production increased (P < 0.05) in cells of birds given 0.75%So, but there were no other pro-inflammatory effects. Birds receiving 0.75% of So in ration for 42 days gained less weight (P < 0.01), and showed a decrease in relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05) and spleen (P < 0.01). In addition, morphological changes were also noted in these lymphoid organs, with depletion of lymphoid cells on the spleen and bursa of Fabricius, resulting in lower relative weight of both lymphoid organs. No impairment of humoral immune response against Newcastle disease and in cellular immune response after a phytohaemagglutinin challenge was found. It is probable that mitochondrial damage and related apoptosis may be responsible for the enhanced peroxide production and the reduced relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen.

Publication Types: PMID: 17493163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Transport of sennosides and sennidines from Cassia angustifolia and Cassia senna across Caco-2 monolayers--an in vitro model for intestinal absorption.

Waltenberger B, Avula B, Ganzera M, Khan IA, Stuppner H, Khan SI.


Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Laxative effects of Senna preparations are mainly mediated by rheinanthrone, a metabolite formed in the intestinal flora from dianthrones. Nevertheless, it was not clear whether dianthrones are bioavailable at all and contribute to the overall effects of this important medicinal plant. Using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line as an in vitro model of the human intestinal mucosal barrier, the bioavailability of dianthrones was studied in apical to basolateral (absorptive) and basolateral to apical (secretive) direction. Permeability coefficients (P(c)) and percent transport were calculated based on quantitations by HPLC. From the data obtained it was concluded that sennosides A and B, as well as their aglycones sennidine A and B are transported through the Caco-2 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and their transport was linear with time. The absorption in apical to basolateral direction was poor and P(c) values were comparable to mannitol. The transport was higher in the secretory direction, indicating a significant efflux (e.g. by efflux pumps) of the (poorly) absorbed compounds in the intestinal lumen again. Our findings support the general understanding that the laxative effects of Senna are explainable mainly by metabolites and not by the natively present dianthrones.

PMID: 17481875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Antiprotozoal activity of Senna racemosa.

Moo-Puc RE, Mena-Rejon GJ, Quijano L, Cedillo-Rivera R.

Unidad Interinstitucional de Investigación Clínica y Epidemiológica, Facultad de Medicina, UADY/Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. moopuc@gmail.com

Methanol extracts of leaves, roots and bark of Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) were tested for antiprotozooal activity against Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of the tested extracts showed good activity against both protozoa species. Extracts from stem bark and leaves were most active, with an IC(50) of 2.10 microg/mL for Giardia intestinalis and 3.87 microg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica. Of the previously isolated compounds from Senna racemosa, the piperidine alkaloid cassine had greater activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC(50) of 3.28 microg/mL and chrysophanol, a 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, was the most active agent against Entamoeba histolytica, with an IC(50) of 6.21 microg/mL.

Publication Types: PMID: 17481835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24.Are herbs always good for you? A case of paralytic ileum using a herbal tisane.

Sossai P, Nasone C, Cantalamessa F.

Department of Medicine, Enrico Mattei Hospital, Matelica, Italy. paolosossai@libero.it

We believe that administration of phytotherapics ('herbal' medicines) should be managed by physicians and pharmacists who can monitor any adverse reactions including allergies in patients. This of course implies that physicians and pharmacists require adequate training at the university and post-university level regarding all aspects of medicinal plants.We report here a case of paralytic ileum occurring in an older self-medicated patient who acquired an herbal tisane composed of Cassia angustifolia, as well as other plant products, in an herbal shop, for chronic constipation. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 17397118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya.

Manda H, Gouagna LC, Nyandat E, Kabiru EW, Jackson RR, Foster WA, Githure JI, Beier JC, Hassanali A.


International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. hmanda@mbita.mimcom.net

Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers.

Publication Types: PMID: 17373953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. Floral biology and reproductive system of enantiostylous Senna corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae).

Laporta C.

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Lab. Plantas Vasculares. Pab. 2. 4 piso. Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina. laporta@uni-bremen.de

The genus Senna (K. Bahuin) Miller (Cassieae) is represented in Argentina by 35 species and several varieties distributed in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions, and presents a high degree of endemism. Some taxa are used for medicine, animal foraging and ornamental purposes. Floral morphology, phases, rewards, attractants, visitors, pollen, reproductive system, P/O ratio. OCI and ISI indexes of enantiostylous Senna corymbosa were analyzed for morphological androecial differentiation and possible related functional differences between stamens groups. The study was carried out over three consecutive flowering seasons in March of 1999, 2000 and 2001, in two populations near the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The species has a buzz-pollination syndrome. The pollinators are Bombus atratus that vibrate the stamens, leading to nothotribic or stemotribic deposition of pollen. P/O ratio and pollen production were high thanks to the precise pollinating mechanism that needs a large delivery of pollen to ensure effective pollen deposition. P/O ratio also indicates that the species is xenogamous, although geitonogamy and autogamy (only induced, not spontaneous) were also recorded. The species is self-compatible. There were differences in hand-pollination treatments between long and medium stamens in fruit set, as well as in vitro differential fertility between their pollen grains. Hence, there are morphological and functional androecium differences: the medium stamens play a nutritional role while the long ones play a reproductive one. These differences are reflected in the breeding system. Moreover, differential fertility and enantiostyly may diminish the effects of self-compatibility by partially reducing the contribution of geitonogamy to selfing.

PMID: 17354419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. Preliminary investigation on the phytochemistry and antimicrobial activity of Senna alata L. flower.

Idu M, Omonigho SE, Igeleke CL.

Department of Botany, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.

Preliminary studies on the phytochemistry and extracts of water, methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether, of Senna alata flowers were examined for antimicrobial properties. Extracts tested at a final concentration of 500 microg mL(-1) produced in vitro antimicrobial activities in assays against clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonans aureginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The zones of inhibitions produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assay against the test micro organisms ranged from 4 to 10 mm while the gentamycin antibiotic control, produced zones that measured 5 mm. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts showed the presence of phenols, tannins, anthraquinoes, saponins, flavonoids.

PMID: 19069869 [PubMed - in process]

28. The pulvinus endodermal cells and their relation to leaf movement in legumes of the Brazilian cerrado.

Rodrigues TM, Machado SR.

Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu, Caixa Postal 510, CEP 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Legume pulvini have a clearly delimited endodermis, whose variable content has been associated with the velocity and type of leaf movement: pulvini in leaves with fast nastic movement contain starch grains; pulvini in leaves with slow nastic movements have calcium oxalate crystals as well as starch grains in the endodermis. However, the studies carried out to date have involved few legume species. This study therefore purported to examine the consistency of this hypothesis in other legumes. Thus, the structure and content of the pulvinus endodermal cells of nine legumes of the Brazilian cerrado, with different types and velocities of leaf movement, were investigated: slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( BAUHINIA RUFA, COPAIFERA LANGSDORFFII, SENNA RUGOSA - Caesalpinioideae; ANDIRA HUMILIS and DALBERGIA MISCOLOBIUM - Faboideae; STRYPHNODENDRON POLYPHYLLUM - Mimosoideae), slow heliotropic movement ( ZORNIA DIPHYLLA - Faboideae), and fast seismonastic and slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( MIMOSA RIXOSA and MIMOSA FLEXUOSA - Mimosoideae). Samples were prepared following standard plant anatomy and ultrastructure techniques. The endodermis of all the species contains starch grains. In the species displaying only slow movements, calcium oxalate prismatic crystals were observed in addition to starch grains, except in ZORNIA DIPHYLLA. In conclusion, oxalate crystals occur only in endodermal cells of pulvini that display slow movements, while starch grains are always present in pulvinus endodermal cells of plants with any kind of movement.

Publication Types: PMID: 17301934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.

Hensel A, Deters AM, Müller G, Stark T, Wittschier N, Hofmann T.

University of Münster, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, Münster, Germany. ahensel@uni-muenster.de

Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.

PMID: 17295182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.

Ratnayaka H, Meurer-Grimes B, Kincaid D.

Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York 10468, USA. hhrlc@cunyvm.cuny.edu

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields.

PMID: 17253262 [PubMed]

31. Ethnotherapeautic management of skin diseases among the Kikuyus of Central Kenya.

Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW.

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department, P.O. Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya. gnjerinjoroge@hotmail.com

Skin health is increasingly becoming an important aspect of primary health care among many communities particularly because of the increased challenge of HIV-AIDS, skin conditions being among the common opportunistic diseases in immuno-compromised individuals. This study investigated the use of traditional remedies in managing various skin conditions in the Central Province of Kenya. Fifty-seven plant species in 31 families were identified as regularly utilized. Of these plants 27 species had a frequency of three and above. Some of the highly utilized plant species include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Barneby, Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm., Croton macrostachyus Del. and Aloe secundifolia Engl. In the majority of the cases the sap or occasionally the latex was applied directly on the affected areas. In other cases the plant parts were heated and used as poultice. Only in few conditions were the plant parts boiled and the extract used for washing affected areas, probably acting as antiseptic. This study found that 14 skin conditions were commonly managed using herbal preparations. Of these conditions nine (9) had informant consensus of 0.5 and above, with the highest consensus found in management of swellings and skin sores. Soils were also cited as an important non-plant resource for management of skin conditions especially those associated with measles. Since most skin conditions are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, the medicinal plants and other resources reported in this study form a justifiable basis for antimicrobial trials, pharmacological and phytochemical analysis, with promising results.

Publication Types: PMID: 17207950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

Rodrigues E.

Department of Biology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Arthur Ridel, 275 CEP, 09941-510 Diadema, S.P., Brazil. elirodri@psicobio.epm.br

A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

Publication Types: PMID: 17196776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Quantitative analysis of barakol content in Senna siamea leaves and flowers by TLC-densitometry.

Padumanonda T, Suntornsuk L, Gritsanapan W.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a TLC-densitometric method for the determination of barakol content in Senna siamea leaf and flower extracts, and to compare the barakol content in mature leaves, young leaves and young flowers of the plant which are consumed as a vegetable in curry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extraction of pure barakol was performed by boiling the fresh young leaves of S. siamea with 0.5% sulfuric acid followed by chloroform extraction. The extract was further purified and recrystallized from absolute ethanol. Authentic sample of barakol was used for the validation of the TLC-densitometric method. Chromatography was performed on a TLC aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F(254)as a stationary phase and chloroform-methanol (85:15 v/v) as a solvent system. Fifteen percent ethanolic extracts of mature leaves, young leaves and flowers of S. siamea were analyzed and compared for barakol content using the validated TLC-densitometric method. Both the validation and analysis of barakol by TLC-densitometry were carried out at the absorbance mode of 366 nm. RESULTS: Barakol was extracted as pure lemon-yellow crystals from young S. siamea leaves with 0.1% yield. Linearity was found over the range of 200-900 ng/spot (r(2) = 0.997). The developed method gave high precision (%RSD < 0.50) and accuracy (average 101.12%). The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 8 and 50 ng, respectively. Barakol content in young leaves, mature leaves and young flowers were 1.67, 0.78 and 1.43% dry weight, respectively. R(f) value of the barakol in young leaves, young flowers and authentic sample was the same: 0.45 +/- 0.03. CONCLUSION: The TLC-densitometric method was simple, precise and convenient; hence it is an effective procedure for the simultaneous determination of barakol in plant extracts. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 17159364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Barakol contents in fresh and cooked Senna siamea leaves.

Padumanonda T, Gritsanapan W.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin and Barneby is a medicinal plant popularly used in Thailand. Young leaves and/or young flowers of this plant have been consumed by Thai people as a Khi Lek curry for a long time. The fresh young leaves and flowers are boiled with water 2-3 times to get rid of the bitterness and the boiled mush is used for curry cooking. Barakol, a major constituent of Senna siamea leaves was analyzed for its content in the fresh young leaves, the boiled leaves and the boiled filtrates by a high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method. Fresh young leaves of S. siamea contained 0.4035% w/w barakol. The amount of barakol in the first and second boiled filtrates were 0.2052 and 0.1079% fresh weight, while the first and second boiled leaves samples were 0.1408 and 0.0414% fresh weight, respectively. The results show the process of preparation of Khi Lek curry by boiling S. siamea young leaves twice with water reduced barakol content up to 90% and the content of barakol in boiled leaves used for curry has much less tendency to cause liver toxicity. This may explain the reason why Thai Khi Lek curry has not caused hepatotoxicity, unlike S. siamea leaves consumed as a powdered capsule.

PMID: 17125004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Anthranoid laxatives influence the absorption of poorly permeable drugs in human intestinal cell culture model (Caco-2).

Laitinen L, Takala E, Vuorela H, Vuorela P, Kaukonen AM, Marvola M.

Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center (DDTC), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland. leena-laitinen@msn.com

Interactions between widely used anthranoid laxatives and other simultaneously administered drugs are not known. In this paper, the influence of rhein, danthron, sennidins A/B, sennosides A/B, and senna leaf infusion was investigated on the permeability of furosemide, ketoprofen, paracetamol, propranolol, verapamil, digoxin, and Rhodamine 123 across Caco-2 monolayers. The effects on monolayer integrity ([(14)C]mannitol permeability, TEER) were also determined. The in vitro absorption of highly permeable drugs was not strongly affected during co-administration of the laxatives. Furosemide permeability was enhanced by rhein and danthron (3.6 and 3.0-fold), which may partly be due to opening of the paracellular spaces and/or effects on active efflux. However, the secretory permeability of digoxin and Rho 123 was not strongly affected by rhein and danthron, suggesting that inhibition of MDR1 was not responsible for the increased permeation of furosemide. The absorptive permeability of digoxin was decreased by rhein and danthron, offering evidence for effects on apical membranes. The effects on monolayer integrity were detectable, but reversible. According to presented experiments, daily use of laxatives with well-absorbing drugs would seem unlikely to affect drug permeability, but the effects on the absorption of poorly permeable drugs cannot be excluded.

PMID: 17098405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36. alpha-Pinene inhibits growth and induces oxidative stress in roots.

Singh HP, Batish DR, Kaur S, Arora K, Kohli RK.

Centre for Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University Chandigarh 160014, India.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Determining the mode of action of allelochemicals is one of the challenging aspects in allelopathic studies. Recently, allelochemicals have been proposed to cause oxidative stress in target tissue and induce an antioxidant mechanism. alpha-Pinene, one of the common monoterpenoids emitted from several aromatic plants including forest trees, is known for its growth-inhibitory activity. However, its mechanism of action remains unexplored. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-pinene on root growth and generation of reactive oxygen species, as indicators of oxidative stress and changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes. METHODS: Effects of alpha-pinene on early root growth were studied in five test species, Cassia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, Triticum aestivum, Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum. Electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, proline accumulation, and activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were studied in roots of C. occidentalis. KEY RESULTS: alpha-Pinene inhibited the radicle growth of all the test species. Exposure of C. occidentalis roots to alpha-pinene enhanced solute leakage, and increased levels of malondialdehyde, proline and hydrogen peroxide, indicating lipid peroxidation and induction of oxidative stress. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPX, APX and GR were significantly elevated, thereby indicating the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon alpha-pinene exposure. Increased levels of scavenging enzymes indicates their induction as a secondary defence mechanism in response to alpha-pinene. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that alpha-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, disruption of membrane integrity and elevated antioxidant enzyme levels.

Publication Types: PMID: 17028297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37. Induction of acid phosphatase activity during germination of maize (Zea mays) seeds.

Senna R, Simonin V, Silva-Neto MA, Fialho E.

Departamento de Nutrição Básica e Experimental, Instituto de Nutrição Josué de Castro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21941-590, Brazil.

Acid phosphatase activity (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) increased during the first 24 h of maize (Zea mays) seed germination. The enzyme displayed a pH optimum of 4.5-5.5. Catalytic activity in vitro displayed a linear time course (60 min) and reached its half maximum value at 0.47 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Phosphatase activity towards phosphoamino acids was greatest for phosphotyrosine. The phosphatase activity was strongly inhibited by ammonium molybdate, vanadate and NaF and did not require divalent cations for the catalysis. The temperature optimum for pNPP hydrolysis was 37 degrees C. Under the same conditions, no enzyme activity was detected with phytic acid as substrate. Western blotting of total homogenates during seed germination revealed proteins/polypeptides that were phosphorylated on tyrosine residues; a protein of approximately 14 kDa is potentially a major biological substrate for the phosphatase activity. The results presented in this study suggest that the acid phosphatase characterized under the tested conditions is a member of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase family.

Publication Types: PMID: 17023171 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

Srivastava A, Pandey R, Verma RK, Gupta MM.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Analytical Chemistry Division, Lucknow-226015, India.

A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

Publication Types: PMID: 16915828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39. Herbal usage and informant consensus in ethnoveterinary management of cattle diseases among the Kikuyus (Central Kenya).

Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW.

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department, PO Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya. gnjerinjoroge@hotmail.com

For most smallholder farmers in Kenya conventional veterinary drugs have become very expensive and therefore unaffordable, causing them to seek low cost alternatives that are rarely documented in most ethnobiological studies. This study surveyed the utilisation of traditional herbal preparations in managing cattle ailments in Central Kenya with the aim of providing a comprehensive ethnobotanical profile and the most important plant species that may warrant scientific validation for efficacy and commercial utilisation. Using semi-structured questionnaires and detailed discussions with smallholder farmers, a total of 40 plant species in 26 families were found to be useful in traditional management of various cattle ailments in this region. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, while the most utilised plant species were found to be Synadenium compactum N.E.Br. (Euphorbiaceae), Solanecio manii (Hook.f.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) and Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby (Caesalpinaceae). Informant consensus was particularly high in managing anaplasmosis, East coast fever and ectoparasites. Such plant species become key target in efficacy tests and for development of commercial veterinary botanicals. The usage of some of the species is unfortunately unsustainable as some of the species are rare or endangered hence the need for conservation strategies to be undertaken.

Publication Types: PMID: 16879938 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Sennosides A and B production by hairy roots of Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Putalun W, Pimmeuangkao S, De-Eknamkul W, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. waraporn@kku.ac.th

Hairy roots of Senna alata transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, strain ATCC 15834 were induced and grown in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Effects of sucrose contents and hormones on the growth and sennosides A, B production were investigated. Hairy roots cultured on hormone-free half-strength MS medium containing 5% sucrose under dark condition mostly stimulated the growth of hairy roots and increased the content of sennosides A and B yielding (169 +/- 4) and (34 +/- 3) microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 16869495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41. In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

Calzada F, Yépez-Mulia L, Aguilar A.

Unidad de Investigación Médica en Farmacología de Productos Naturales, Hospital de Pediatría, 2 Piso, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores, CP 06725, México, DF, Mexico. fercalber1@hotmail.com

In our search for new antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 26 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Methanolic extracts of these species were screened for their antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites using in vitro tests. Among the tested extracts, the derivates of following species showed selectivity and significant antiprotozoal activity: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Annona cherimola and Punica granatum were the most active on Entamoeba histolytica with IC50 < 30 microg/ml. Dorstenia contrajerva, Senna villosa and Ruta chalepensis were the most active toward Giardia lamblia with IC50 < 38 microg/ml. The potency of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon (IC50 2.5 microg/ml) on Entamoeba histolytica was close that of to emetine, but far less than metronidazole, drugs used as control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of the studied species for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery in Mexican traditional medicine.

Publication Types: PMID: 16846708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

Arranz I, Sizoo E, van Egmond H, Kroeger K, Legarda TM, Burdaspal P, Reif K, Stroka J.

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel, Belgium.

A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above.

Publication Types: PMID: 16792057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. Interspecific variation in vessel size, growth and drought tolerance of broad-leaved trees in semi-arid regions of Kenya.

Kondoh S, Yahata H, Nakashizuka T, Kondoh M.

Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Ropponmatsu, Chou-ku, Fukuoka, 810-8560, Japan. tsuji@ecology.kyoto-u.ac.jp

In semi-arid regions, trees often wither during the dry season. Withering is sometimes manifest as die-back, whereby whithering results in shoot death, which progresses downward from the uppermost part of the crown. In this study, we measured the relationships between height growth and diameter at breast height, die-back frequency and severity, vessel size and specific hydraulic conductivity of four evergreen (Senna siamea (Lamk) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don, Azadirachta indica A.H.L. Juss and Acacia gerrardii Benth.) and one deciduous (Melia volkensii Gürke) plantation tree species in Kenya, which has a conspicuous dry season. Die-back occurred readily in some species, but not in others. Senna siamea showed the highest specific hydraulic conductivity and the highest growth rate among the five species and was quite susceptible to die-back. Among species, height growth and specific hydraulic conductivity were positively correlated with vessel size and negatively correlated with die-back frequency, suggesting a trade-off between growth rate and drought tolerance. This implies that an adaptation to rapid growth under humid conditions leads to low drought tolerance. However, the deciduous tree Melia volkensii showed high specific hydraulic conductivity and growth, with no symptoms of die-back, implying that a mechanism associated with the deciduous habit results in drought avoidance by reducing the requirement for water during the dry season.

Publication Types: PMID: 16585035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44. Evaluation of contraceptive activity of a mineralo-herbal preparation in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Srivastava SR, Kesarwani S, Keshri G, Singh MM.

Endocrinology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001, India.

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate a marketed mineralo-herbal preparation containing plants known to have potent contraceptive activity, or contraindicated for use during pregnancy in folklore/ancient Indian literature and recommended for use as an appetizer and headache, hyperacidity and chronic constipation reliever for effect on spermatogenesis and implantation-cum-early postimplantation events in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: The preparation, suspended in distilled water with the addition of sterile gum acacia, was administered at 1 g/kg daily dose (extrapolated from human dose on surface area basis) to male rats covering one spermatogenic cycle and to female rats during the entire preimplantation and early postimplantation period by oral route. Fertility performance of male rats was tested following mating with untreated fertile females. RESULTS: Findings of this study indicate that the mineralo-herbal preparation at this dose and schedule produced no discernible effect on weight of testis, epididymis and accessory glands, spermatogenesis, vasal sperm picture or mating rate in male rats when administered during the period covering one spermatogenic cycle, but caused significant reduction in number of implantations in females mated with these male rats as well as in female rats treated during the postcoital period. CONCLUSIONS: Any adverse effect on fertility/reproductive health following administration over longer periods/at higher doses in humans habituated to continuous use of this preparation cannot be completely ruled out from this limited study. Findings also suggest caution in indiscriminate use of this and other such preparations containing varying amounts of plants/plant products reported to possess contraceptive property and available for other pharmacological indications over-the-counter in most countries.

Publication Types: PMID: 16307970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45.An oral carcinogenicity and toxicity study of senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits) in the rat.

Mitchell JM, Mengs U, McPherson S, Zijlstra J, Dettmar P, Gregson R, Tigner JC.

Purdue Pharma, Ardsley, NY, USA.

Senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits), a known laxative derived from plants, was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (Crl:CD (SD) BR) rats once daily at dose levels of 0, 25, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for up to 104 consecutive weeks. Based upon clinical signs related to the laxation effect of senna, the highest dose (300 mg/kg/day) was considered to be a maximum tolerated dose. Sixty animals per sex were assigned to the control and dose groups. Assessments included clinical chemistry, hematology, full histology (control and high-dose groups; in addition, low and mid dose: intestinal tract, adrenals, liver, kidneys, brain and gross lesions) and toxicokinetics. The primary treatment-related clinical observation was mucoid feces seen at 300 mg/kg/day. When compared to controls, animals administered 300 mg/kg/day had slightly reduced body weights, increased water consumption and notable changes in electrolytes in serum (increases in potassium and chloride) and urine (decreases in sodium, potassium and chloride). The changes in electrolytes are most likely physiologic adaptations to the laxative effect of senna. At necropsy, dark discoloration of the kidneys was observed in animals in all treated groups. Histological changes were seen in the kidneys of animals from all treated groups and included slight to moderate tubular basophilia and tubular pigment deposits. In addition, for all treated groups, minimal to slight hyperplasia was evident in the colon and cecum. These histological changes, together with the changes seen in the evaluation of clinical chemistry and urine parameters, have been shown to be reversible in a previous 13-week rat study of senna. No treatment-related neoplastic changes were observed in any of the examined organs. Based upon these data, it is concluded that senna is not carcinogenic even after daily administration for 2 years at dosages of up to 300 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Publication Types: PMID: 16205914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W.


Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri Ayudthaya Road, Rachathevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. scmtd@mahidol.ac.th

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.

Publication Types: PMID: 16009519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47.  Senna and the formation of aberrant crypt foci and tumors in rats treated with azoxymethane.

Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Di Carlo G, Izzo AA, Mascolo N, Capasso F.


Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Via D. Montesano 80131 Naples, Italy.

Chronic use of anthraquinone laxatives has been blamed for the induction of habituation and the development of colonic cancer, but there are no definitive studies which have demonstrated this. To evaluate the carcinogenic potential of anthraquinones, the effect of long-term senna pod extract (SE) treatment on either healthy rats or rats treated with an initiating tumor agent (azoxymethane--AOM) has been studied. SE (30 and 60mg/kg), administered for 110 weeks, did not induce the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in healthy rats. The development of ACF and tumors in rats treated with AOM were significantly reduced by SE (30 and 60 mg/kg). These results suggest that a chronic SE use does not predispose to colon cancer. By contrast, SE might exert an anti-tumoral activity on rat colon carcinogenesis.

Publication Types :  PMID: 16008128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs by HPLC. An efficient method for routine analysis.

Gómez-Catalán J, Piqué E, Falcó G, Borrego N, Rodamilans M, Llobet JM.

Unit of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avda Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. jesusgomez@ub.edu

A fast and easy to perform method for the routine determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs was developed. The described method involves a single-step extraction with a non-chlorinated solvent, an immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Whilst assays with naturally contaminated and with spiked samples of several herbs showed that the recoveries were somewhat low and dependent on the kind of sample and the degree of grinding, the intra-batch reproducibility was good, allowing a reliable quantitation by the standard-addition method. Good linearity, repeatability and accuracy were demonstrated in assays involving several medicinal herbs. The limit of quantitation was of the order of 0.05-0.1 ng/g, being dependent of the species analysed, and the method required no tedious concentration or back-extraction steps.

PMID: 15997853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49. Acute liver failure with renal impairment related to the abuse of senna anthraquinone glycosides.

Vanderperren B, Rizzo M, Angenot L, Haufroid V, Jadoul M, Hantson P.


Department of Nephrology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of chronic ingestion of very large amounts of senna fruits as an herbal tea, possibly leading to severe hepatotoxicity. CASE SUMMARY: A 52-year-old woman who had ingested, for >3 years, one liter of an herbal tea each day made from a bag containing 70 g of dry senna fruits, developed acute hepatic failure and renal impairment requiring intensive care therapy. The severity of the hepatic failure was reflected by the increase in prothrombin time (international normalized ratio >7) and the development of encephalopathy. Liver transplantation was discussed, but the patient ultimately recovered with supportive therapy. Renal impairment was consistent with proximal tubular acidosis, also with marked polyuria refractory to vasopressin administration. Suprisingly, large amounts of cadmium were transiently recovered in the urine. DISCUSSION: Cassia acutifolia and angustifolia plants are widely used as laxatives. Their chronic abuse may be associated with serious manifestations, including fluid and electrolyte loss, with chronic diarrhea. Severe hepatotoxicity is unusual, but could be explained by the exposure of the liver to unusual amounts of toxic metabolites of anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides). An objective causality assessment suggests that hepatotoxicity was possibly related to senna laxative abuse. Regarding nephrotoxicity, there are no available human data on sennosides, while experimental models suggest that anthraquinone derivatives may also accumulate in the kidneys. The finding of high urinary concentrations of cadmium would suggest contamination of the herbal tea by metals, but this hypothesis could not be verified. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of large doses of senna laxatives may expose people to the risk of hepatotoxicity.

Publication Types: PMID: 15956233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50. Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seed processing and potential utilization.

Harry-O'kuru RE, Wu YV, Evangelista R, Vaughn SF, Rayford W, Wilson RF.

New Crops and Processing Technology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA. harryore@ncaur.usda.gov

Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) is a leguminous plant that infests soybean fields in the southeastern United States. Its seeds contain a variety of toxic, highly colored compounds, mainly anthraquinones together with a small amount of fat. These compounds contaminate and lower the quality of soybean oil when inadequately cleaned soybean seed from this area is processed. The sorting of sicklepod seed from a soybean harvest is an additional economic burden on the farmer beyond the cost of proper disposal of the weed seed to avoid worsening field infestation. Fortunately, sicklepod seed also contains substantial amounts of carbohydrates and proteins. These edible components when freed from anthraquinones have a market in pet food as well as potential in human foods because of the high galactomannan ratio of the polysaccharides. Sicklepod seed was dehulled, and the ground endosperm was defatted, followed by sequential solvent extraction of the defatted seed meal to isolate the anthraquinones, carbohydrates, and protein components into their respective classes. Each class of isolate was spectroscopically identified.

PMID: 15941316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51. New selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitors designed from natural piperidine alkaloids.

Viegas C Jr, Bolzani VS, Pimentel LS, Castro NG, Cabral RF, Costa RS, Floyd C, Rocha MS, Young MC, Barreiro EJ, Fraga CA.

Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese, de Substâncias Bioativas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68023, 21944-910, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Five new piperidine alkaloids were designed from natural (-)-3-O-acetyl-spectaline and (-)-spectaline that were obtained from the flowers of Senna spectabilis (sin. Cassia spectabilis, Leguminosae). Two semi-synthetic analogues (7 and 9) inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase, showing IC50 of 7.32 and 15.1 microM, and were 21 and 9.5 times less potent against rat brain butyrylcholinesterase, respectively. Compound 9 (1mg/kg, i.p.) was fully efficacious in reverting scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. The two active compounds (7 and 9) did not show overt toxic effects at the doses tested in vivo.

Publication Types: PMID: 15878668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52. Biofumigant compounds released by field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seedmeal.

Vaughn SF, Isbell TA, Weisleder D, Berhow MA.

New Crops and Processing Technology Research USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA. vaughnsf@ncaur.usda.gov

Defatted field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seedmeal was found to completely inhibit seedling germination/emergence when added to a sandy loam soil containing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and arugula [Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.] seeds at levels of 1.0% w/w or higher. Covering the pots with Petri dishes containing the soil-seedmeal mixture decreased germination of both species at the lowest application rate (0.5% w/w), suggesting that the some of the phytotoxins were volatile. CH2Cl2, MeOH, and water extracts of the wetted seedmeal were bioassayed against wheat and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby) radicle elongation. Only the CH2Cl2 extract was strongly inhibitory to both species. Fractionation of the CH2Cl2 extract yielded two major phytotoxins, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR as 2-propen-1-yl (allyl) isothiocyanate (AITC) and allyl thiocyanate (ATC), which constituted 80.9 and 18.8%, respectively, of the active fraction. When seeds of wheat, arugula and sicklepod were exposed to volatilized AITC and ATC, germination of all three species was completely inhibited by both compounds at concentrations of 5 ppm or less. In field studies, where seedmeal was applied at 0.50, 1.25, and 2.50 kg/m2 and tarped with black plastic mulch, all of the treatments significantly reduced dry weight of bioassay plants compared to the tarped control, with the highest seedmeal rate decreasing dry matter to less than 10% of the control 30 d after seedmeal application. Field pennycress seedmeal appears to offer excellent potential as a biofumigant for high-value horticultural crops for both conventional and organic growers.

PMID: 15839488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53. Screening procedure for detection of stimulant laxatives and/or their metabolites in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates and extractive methylation.

Beyer J, Peters FT, Maurer HH.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Saarland, D-66421 Homburg (Saar), Germany.

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based screening procedure was developed for the detection of stimulant laxatives and/or their metabolites in human urine after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates followed by extractive methylation. The part of the phase-transfer catalyst remaining in the organic phase was removed by solid-phase extraction on a diol phase. The compounds were separated by capillary GC and identified by computerized MS in the full scan mode. By use of mass chromatography with the ions m/z 305, 290, 335, 320, 365, 350, 311, 326, 271, and 346, the possible presence of stimulant laxatives and/or their metabolites could be indicated. The identity of positive signals in such mass chromatograms was confirmed by comparison of the peaks underlying full mass spectra with the reference spectra. This method allowed the detection of the diphenol laxatives bisacodyl, picosulfate, and phenolphthalein and of the anthraquinone laxatives contained in plant extracts and/or their metabolites in human urine samples. The overall recoveries of the stimulant laxatives and/or their metabolites ranged between 33% and 89% with a coefficient of variation of less than 15%, and the limits of detection ranged between 10 and 25 ng/mL (S/N 3) in the full scan mode. After ingestion of the lowest therapeutic dose of sodium picosulfate, its main metabolite, bisacodyl diphenol, was detectable in urine samples for 72 hours. After ingestion of the lowest therapeutic dose of a senna extract, the main metabolite of sennosides, rhein, was detectable in urine samples for 24 hours. This procedure is part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons with the modification of enzymatic cleavage of conjugates.

Publication Types: PMID: 15795644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54. Sub-acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats.

Barbosa-Ferreira M, Dagli ML, Maiorka PC, Górniak SL.


Research Center of Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo-SP, Brazil.

Senna occidentalis (So) is a weed that grows in pastures along fences and in fields cultivated with cereals such as corn and soybean, and many reports have been showing intoxication with this plant in different animal species. It is also used in many medicinal purposes. The objective of the present study was to better evaluate the toxic effects of prolonged administration of So seeds to rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each, three of them respectively fed rations containing 1%, 2% and 4% So seeds, and the last one (control) fed commercial ration for a period of 2 weeks. Fourteen rats were also used in a pair-feeding (PF) experiment. The rats of the experimental groups showed lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation. Two rats of the 4% group and two of the PF group died during the experiment. Histopathological study showed fiber degenerations in the skeletal (Tibial, pectoral and diaphragm) and cardiac muscles. In the liver parenchyma, was observed vacuolar degeneration and, in the kidney, mild nefrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules. All of these alterations occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis in the central nervous system, especially in cerebellum. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues.

PMID: 15721195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55. Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and the isolation of a bioactive compound from plants used to treat sexually transmitted diseases.

Tshikalange TE, Meyer JJ, Hussein AA.

Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Extracts of six ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants (Anredera cordifolia, Elaeodendron transvaalense, Elephantorrhiza burkei, Senna petersiana, Terminalia sericea and Rauvolfia caffra) used traditionally to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) were investigated for antibacterial activity using the agar dilution method. Of the six collected, Terminalia sericea, Senna petersiana and Anredera cordifolia were also investigated for cytotoxicity. The phytochemical studies on Senna petersiana resulted in the isolation of luteolin, which also showed antimicrobial activity. Only the Senna petersiana extract and luteolin isolated from it were tested for antiviral activity and showed some activity at the highest non-toxic concentration of 24 and 500 microg/ml, respectively. The results of the antimicrobial screening support the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants to some extent.

Publication Types: PMID: 15619572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56. Bolus obstruction of pouch outlet by a granular bulk laxative after gastric banding.

Herrle F, Peters T, Lang C, von Fluee M, Kern B, Peterli R.

Department of Surgery, St. Claraspital, Basel, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Constipation is an occasional problem after gastric banding and is often caused by insufficient liquid intake. As a result, the use of laxatives is widespread in such patients. Depending on the laxative, improper use can lead to bolus obstruction above the band, as occurred in this case. Case Report: A 59-year-old female with uncomplicated laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding presented 2 months after surgery with food and liquid intolerance and dysphagia after ingestion of a granular bulking laxative. Despite deflating the band, the bolus could not be washed out. Endoscopic extraction was required, revealing a 4x2 cm bolus of the laxative and a small compression ulcer. DISCUSSION: Patients not complying with nutritional recommendations after gastric banding may have insufficient liquid intake and, consequently, constipation. Under these conditions, the use of a granular bulking laxative entails the risk of esophageal obstruction above the band. CONCLUSION: Nutritional counseling after gastric banding should include the recommendation of liquid intake of at least 1.5 l/day. If constipation occurs, osmotic or paraffin oil laxatives should be used instead of bulking laxatives.

Publication Types:  PMID: 15329197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57. Ontogenetic variation in digestion by the herbivorous lizard Ctenosaura pectinata.

Durtsche RD.

Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA. durtsche@nku.edu

I tested the hypothesis that an animal with an ontogenetic diet shift must have different digestive efficiencies for foods that correspond to its diet shift, so that nutrient and energy extraction are maximized. The iguanine lizard Ctenosaura pectinata undergoes an ontogenetic diet shift from eating insects as a juvenile to plants as an adult. When fed six different pure foods from the natural diets of different age classes, C. pectinata assimilated nutrients and energy differently depending on food type and age class. Extraction of energy and nutrients in insect larvae was maximized by juvenile lizards. Calcium, phosphorus, and energy were readily assimilated from flowers and fruit by immature and adult lizards. Magnesium levels were highest in leaves and were extracted by immature and adult lizards, but xenobiotic effects of one plant leaf (Croton suberosus), eaten by adults, killed juvenile lizards. Although juvenile C. pectinata ate some flowers (Senna wislizenii) naturally, they were less efficient at digesting cell walls from these plant parts than were older lizards. Ontogenetic changes in ctenosaur digestive physiology were not the result of a trade-off involving ecological costs of different foods; rather, each age class preferred a diet that maximized its physiological benefit.

Publication Types: PMID: 15286919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58. Stability control of senna leaves and senna extracts.

Goppel M, Franz G.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Powdered senna leaves and a commercial methanolic senna leaf extract were investigated for apparent degradation pathways of known constituents. Different defined storage conditions were chosen according to the guidelines of the international conference on harmonization. Analytical fingerprinting was carried out by HPLC with photodiode array detection. Differences in degradation pathways were observed between the powdered herbal drug material and the extract, depending on storage conditions and packaging materials. Within the crude plant material sennosides were shown to be degraded to sennidine monoglycosides, while rhein 8-O-glucoside was hydrolysed to rhein by enzymatic processes. Degradation of the anthranoid compounds was not due to the same pathways in the investigated commercial extracts. Only unspecific alterations of all compounds were observed. Forced decomposition of this herbal drug preparation under high temperature caused oxidative decomposition of the sennosides to rhein 8-O-glucoside. Furthermore flavonoid glycosides decomposition were observed with an apparent increase in the content of flavone aglyca.

PMID: 15124088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59. Antimycobacterial Naphthopyrones from Senna obliqua.

Graham JG, Zhang H, Pendland SL, Santarsiero BD, Mesecar AD, Cabieses F, Farnsworth NR.

Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the methanolic extract of the stem and fruits of Senna obliqua led to the isolation of two known antimycobacterial natural products, quinquangulin (1) and rubrofusarin (2). Both compounds had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 12.0 microg/mL against Mycobacteriatuberculosis in radiometric culture. This is the first report of antimycobacterial activity associated with naphthopyrone compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.

PMID: 14987063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60. Cytotoxic alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis.

Sriphong L, Sotanaphun U, Limsirichaikul S, Wetwitayaklung P, Chaichantipyuth C, Pummangura S.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Prathom, Thailand. lawan@email.pharm.su.ac.th

Three new alkaloids, 3(R)-benzoyloxy-2(R)-methyl-6(R)-(11'-oxododecyl)-piperidine (3), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-(11'-oxododecyl)-pyridine (4) and 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-(11'-oxododecyl)-pyridine N-oxide (5), together with a known alkaloid, (-)-cassine (1), were isolated from the flowers of Senna spectabilis. A derivative, N,O-diacetylcassine (2), was semisynthesized. Their structures and stereochemistry were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxic activity and brine shrimp lethality of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 2, 3 and 5 exhibited cytoxicity against KB cell lines with IC50 values of 5.2, 3.7 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively.

Publication Types : PMID: 14735447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.

Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Puga FR, Perez NM.

Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Plants of the genus Senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. Radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. The objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of Senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal muscle fibers. Fragments of the lower gut of young and adult rats treated with S. occidentalis seeds (2% for 171 days and 3% for 61 days in the diet) were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis and to densitometry. The most important finding was decreased oxidative enzyme activity in smooth muscle cells and in myenteric neurons of the large bowel. As oxidative metabolism is essential for ATP and energy production, these results suggest that the functional intestinal disturbance caused by the chronic use of Senna occidentalis as a laxative can be due to a metabolic effect involving energy production, which would decrease colonic motility and cause functional colonic dilatation, but without any irreversible anatomic change.

PMID: 14708639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.

de Souza GC, Haas AP, von Poser GL, Schapoval EE, Elisabetsky E.

PPG-Botânica, ICBS, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Prédio 43433, Sala 209, Brazil.

This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care.

Publication Types: PMID: 14698521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

Silva TC, Gorniak SL, Oloris SC, Raspantini PC, Haraguchi M, Dagli ML.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, University of São Paulo, Av Prof Dr Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

Publication Types: PMID: 14676015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


64. The effects of low doses of Senna occidentalis seeds on broiler chickens.

Haraguchi M, Dagli ML, Raspantini PC, Górniak SL.

Animal Health Center, Biological Institute of São Paulo, Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves, 1252, CEP 04014-002, São Paulo, Brazil. haragucihi@.biologico.sp.gov.br

The effects of 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.1% w/w concentrations of Senna occidentalis (So) seed mixed with commercial ration were studied in 18 groups of 32 broiler chicks each, from 1 day to 49 days of age. Three groups were fed one of the rations throughout their lives (TL). Three other groups were fed one of the rations from the 1st to the 28th day of life (starter phase, SP), and the final 3 groups were fed one of the rations from the 29th to 49th day (finisher phase, FP). Each experimental group was matched by a control group fed the same diet over the same period but without the inclusion of So. All the animals were killed at 49 days of age, and blood was collected from 10 birds in each group for biochemical studies (ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, UA). A complete necropsy was performed on 3 birds from each group. No significant differences in the biochemical parameters in the serum were found between the control and experimental chicks, but animals treated with 0.5% So in groups FP and TL, gained less weight and chicks that received 0.3% So or 0.5% So in the ration throughout life (TL) had a larger feed conversion ratio. Besides this, degenerative changes were found in the striated skeletal muscle in the chest, in the myocardium and in the liver in the animals that received the higher concentrations of So seeds.

Publication Types: PMID: 12872832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65. Treatment of bovine dermatophilosis with Senna alata, Lantana camara and Mitracarpus scaber leaf extracts.

Ali-Emmanuel N, Moudachirou M, Akakpo JA, Quetin-Leclercq J.

Collège Polytechnique Universitaire, Université d'Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benin.

This study describes interesting preliminary results on the therapeutic effects of ointments prepared with extracts of medicinal plants on bovine dermatophilosis. Our results show that the use of ointments made with ethanolic extracts of leaves of Senna alata, Lantana camara and Mitracarpus scaber, as topical treatments on chronic crusty or acute lesions of dermatophilosis, induces healing of the disease in the nine infected animals treated without recurrence. This is opposed to what is observed by using oxytetracycline, terramycin long-acting (TLA), or procaine-penicillin, antibiotics commonly used parenterally for the treatment of dermatophilosis in the Republic of Benin which could not prevent the recurrence of the disease. These ointments, when applied once a day for 8-15 days, provoked the falling off of the crusts after 3-4 days of treatment. Hair grows on the treated areas, which heal without scarring, within 3-4 weeks after the end of the treatment. The healed animals became free of dermatophilosis without recurrence for more than 3 years and were in good health.

Publication Types: PMID: 12738081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


66. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

Abebe W.

Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.

Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances.

Publication Types: PMID: 12704968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


66. Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India.

Arya R.

Arid Forest Research Institute, PO Krishi Mandi, New Pali Road, Jodhpur 342 005, India. dr_ranjana@yahoo.com

A silvi-herbal trial was conducted in the hot arid region of India to study the performance of a shrub (Cassia angustifolia) in combination with different tree species. The study area was frequented by frost. Leaf yield of C. angustifolia under different treatments was estimated. It was found that the shrubs produced a significantly higher yield of leaves in the vicinity of the tree species as compared to the shrubs at a far distance from the trees. This was perhaps because of more protection of crops near the canopy of the plants during frosts. The yield was not much affected by the variation of tree species indicating that the effect of tree-shrub combination was not profound. C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income.

PMID: 12653282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


67. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

Kumarasinghe SP, Karunaweera ND, Ihalamulla RL, Arambewela LS, Dissanayake RD.

Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka. prasadkumarasinghe@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. AIMS: Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). METHODS: In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. RESULTS: MT and the two LAWS samples killed the larvae in vitro within 4 h. Chromatography showed more unidentified constituents in MT than in pure LAWS, indicating additional substances in MT. The 4 and 3% preparations of the essential oil of betel were effective in killing 100% of the larvae of Chrysomya within 3 h 30 min. The 2% extract of betel essential oil killed 96.7% of larvae in 4 h. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of betel, the aqueous extract of C. alata, normal saline and the Tween 80 solvent were not larvicidal. CONCLUSIONS: MT and LAWS, the main ingredient of MT, were effective in killing Chrysomya larvae. Essential oil obtained from betel leaves also showed a dose-dependent larvicidal effect on Chrysomya larvae. This natural product may be effective in the treatment of wound myiasis.

PMID: 12492975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68. Racemochrysone, a dihydroanthracenone from Senna racemosa.

Mena-Rejón GJ, Pérez-Rivas K, Sansorez-Peraza P, Rios T, Quijano L.


Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, México.

From the hexane extract of the bark of the stems of Senna racemosa (syn. Cassia racemosa) a new dihydroanthracenone derivative, named racemochrysone, was isolated. Its structure was established as 8,9-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-(2H)-anthracen-1-one based on spectroscopical data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments. In addition beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, chrysophanol and physcion were obtained. From the leaves extracts the piperidine alkaloid cassine and the hexitol pinitol were obtained.

Publication Types: PMID: 12440710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

Lin LT, Liu LT, Chiang LC, Lin CC.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Canada.

Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12203264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70. Peroxidase-mediated transformation of hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinones.

Arrieta-Baez D, Roman R, Vazquez-Duhalt R, Jiménez-Estrada M.

Facultad de Química, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, D.F. 06860, CP 04510 Mexico.

A peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) has been isolated and purified from Senna angustifolia. The enzyme was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on high Q and high S columns. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that the protein has a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa. Hydroxy-anthraquinones and hydroxy-anthracenones were evaluated as substrate of S. angustifolia and horseradish peroxidases. Both peroxidases catalyzed the oxidation of alizarin and purpurin anthraquinones to the corresponding 3,3'-bializarin and the new compound 3,3'-bipurpurin, respectively, as well as the formation of 2,2'-biquinizarin from quinizarin anthracenone. The K(Mapp) and V(max) values for alizarin and purpurin were 97 and 95 microM, and 1.5 and 2.1 microM min(-1) mg prot(-1), respectively. The results suggest that peroxidase may participate in the biogenesis of anthraquinones.

Publication Types: PMID: 12126702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71. Distribution of COX-negative mitochondria in myofibers of rats intoxicated with Senna occidentalis seeds.

Calore NM, Calore EE, Sesso A, Correia H, Marcondes MC, Vilela de Almeida L.

Pharmacology Department, Biomedical Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

We have described that administration of seeds or parts of the seed of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) for long periods, induces histochemical changes in the skeletal muscles of hens and rats that are characteristic of a mitochondrial myopathy--as decrease of SDH and COX activity, with some COX negative fibers. In this experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy, as in many human mitochondrial diseases, there is a random distribution of COX negative fibers. Some fibers are completely COX negative while others are partially negative and others are completely positive. In the present work we have studied the distribution of COX negative mitochondria at transmission electron microscopy in skeletal muscle of rats in this experimental myopathy. In myofibers of intoxicated animals the expression of COX was heterogeneous. The histochemical reaction was observed in the internal membrane (more evident in mitochondrial cristae) of all mitochondria of some myofibers, while it was almost absent in other myofibers. In these myofibers the great part of the mitochondria were negative for COX reaction while other ones had a weak expression of this enzyme (dot or focal expression of COX). Our results indicated that the COX mitochondrial activity is heterogeneously impaired in myofibers of rats intoxicated with S. occidentalis. These abnormalities remember those observed in some types of human mitochondrial myopathies.

PMID: 12117285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72. Complete LC/MS analysis of a Tinnevelli senna pod extract and subsequent isolation and identification of two new benzophenone glucosides.

Terreaux C, Wang Q, Ioset JR, Ndjoko K, Grimminger W, Hostettmann K.

Institut de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Université de Lausanne, BEP, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The hydroalcoholic extract of Tinnevelli senna is widely used as a laxative phytomedicine. In order to improve the knowledge of the chemical composition of this extract, LC/MS and LC/MS(n) studies were performed, allowing the on-line identification of most of the known constituents, i. e., flavonoids, anthraquinones and the typical dianthronic sennosides. However, the identity of four compounds could not be ascertained on-line under the given LC/MS conditions. These substances were isolated and their structures elucidated as kaempferol, the naphthalene derivative tinnevellin 8-glucoside and two new carboxylated benzophenone glucosides.

Publication Types: PMID: 11988861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73. Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon.

Wang X, Zhong YX, Lan M, Zhang ZY, Shi YQ, Lu J, Ding J, Wu KC, Jin JP, Pan BR, Fan DM.

Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University,Xi'an 710033,Shaanxi Province,China.

AIM: To isolate the proteins involved in pharmacologic action of senna extract (SE) from mouse gastrointestinal tract and to explore the molecular mechanism of gastrointestinal motility change induced by SE. METHODS: SE was administrated to mice by different routes. Gastrointestinal motility of mice was observed using cathartic, gastrointestinal propellant movement experiments and X-ray analysis. Mouse model for gastrointestinal motility enhancement was established through continuous gastric administration of SE at progressively increased dose. At 3 h and week 3, 4, 6 and 10, morphological changes of gastrointestinal tissues were found under light microscope. Ultrastructural changes of intestinal and colonic tissues at week 6 were observed under transmission electron microscope. The colonic proteomic changes in model mice were examined by two-dimension polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing to screen the differentially expressed proteins, and their molecular masses and isoelectric points were determined. Two N-terminal sequences of the samples were also determined by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: SE (0.3g) caused diarrhea after gastric administration in 1-6h and enhanced gastrointestinal propellant (65.1+/-7.5%; 45.8+/-14.6%, P<0.01) in mice, but intramuscular and hypodermic injection had no cathartic effect. X-ray analysis of gastrointestinal motility demonstrated that gastric administration of SE enhanced gastric evacuation and gastrointestinal transferring function. At 3 h and week 3 and 4 after gastric administration of SE, light microscopic examination revealed no apparent change in gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, but transmission electron microscopic examination revealed inflammatory changes in whole layer of intestinal and colonic wall. Twenty differential proteins were detected in the colonic tissues of the model mice by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of two proteins were determined. CONCLUSION: SE causes diarrhea and enhances gastrointestinal motility through digestive tract administration. Long-term gastric administration of SE induces inflammatory changes and cell damage in the whole gastrointestinal tract. The differential proteins screened from the colonic tissues of the model mice might mediate the enhancing effect of SE on gastrointestinal motility.

Publication Types: PMID: 11833095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74. Use of the SOS-chromotest spot assay as a screening system for detecting genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts.

Baez DA, Vallejo GZ, Sánchez PC, Valle MB, Chilpa RR, Estrada MJ.


Instituto de Química, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, Mexico DF, Mexico.

An SOS-chromotest spot assay was used to detect genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts. The method allows simultaneous testing of extracts from different species in either a liquid or a solid crystalline form. Extracts from two species of the genus Senna, native to the state of Morelos, Mexico, were assayed. Four genotoxic compounds were isolated, and were identified as quercetin and rutin from S. wislizeni, and 5,7-di- O-methylrutin and 5,7-di-O-methylquercetin from S. skinneri. The SOS-chromotest spot assay proved to be useful for activity- guided fractionation at the beginning of screening for genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts.

Publication Types :  PMID: 11827573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75. Evaluation of the dissolution behaviour of some commercial herbal drugs and their preparations.

Taglioli V, Bilia AR, Ghiara C, Mazzi G, Mercati V, Vincieri FF.


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy. vania.taglioli@unifi.it

Dissolution rates are routinely performed with synthetic drugs, however, in the field of herbal drugs (HD), their preparations (HDP) and herbal medicinal products (HMP) this crucial property is generally not investigated. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, we have evaluated the dissolution behaviour of capsules containing various herbal drugs (Passira, Senna, Ginkgo) and some of their commercial dried extracts, manufactured with different methods, by analysis of their active components or marker constituents. Adequate dissolution behaviours of the flavonoids of Ginkgo were obtained for all preparations, while for both Passiflora and Senna only the extracts showed complete dissolution of the marker flavones and sennosides, respectively, in the investigated media.

Publication Types: PMID: 11817172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76. A mosaic disease of Senna hirsuta induced by a potyvirus in Nigeria.

Owolabi AT, Proll E.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria. owolabi@unical.anpa.net.ng

A virus inducing mosaic and severe leaf malformation, isolated from Senna hirsuta in Nigeria, was studied. The virus had a rather narrow host range, infecting a few species in Caesalpinaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Fabaceae families. The virus was widespread in southern Nigeria with prevalence ranging from 74% to 86.4% in some locations. It was transmitted mechanically and in a non-persistent manner by Myzuspersicae, Aphis craccivora and A. spiraecola. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds. Electron microscopy of leaf dip preparations revealed flexuous rod-shaped particles. The viral coat protein had Mr of 32.5 K. The virus reacted positively with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to peanut stripe virus specific for potyviruses (members of the Potvvirus genus) and with antisera to turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), potato virus Y (PVY), TuMV, potato virus A (PVA), potato virus V (PVV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), but it failed to react with antisera to celery mosaic virrus (CeMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and clover yellow mosaic virus (ClYMV) in plate-trapped ELISA (PTA-ELISA). No positive reaction was obtained when the virus was tested against any of the antisera in double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA). This is the first report of natural infection of Senna species in Nigeria. The virus, tentatively designated as Senna mosaic virus (SeMV), seems to differ from other viruses previously described from Senna species in the literature and indeed other legume potyviruses in Nigeria.

Publication Types: PMID: 11719985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77. An improved method for the analysis of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Bala S, Uniyal GC, Dubey T, Singh SP.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow-226015, India.

A reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of sennosides A and B present in leaf and pod extracts of Cassia angustifolia has been developed using a Symmetry C18 column and a linear binary gradient profile. The method can be utilised for the quantitative determination of other sennosides as a baseline resolution for most of the constituents was achieved. The method is economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used (25 mL) for each analysis. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of each peak with those of reference compounds using a photodiode array detector.

Publication Types: PMID: 11705335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

Logarto Parra A, Silva Yhebra R, Guerra Sardiñas I, Iglesias Buela L.

Drug Research and Development Center (CIDEM), Biologic Research Department, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. cidem@infomed.sld.cu

Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

Publication Types: PMID: 11695884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79. Double blind randomised controlled trial of topical glyceryl trinitrate in anal fissure.

Kenny SE, Irvine T, Driver CP, Nunn AT, Losty PD, Jones MO, Turnock RR, Lamont GL, Lloyd DA.

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. simon.kenny@liv.ac.uk

AIMS: To determine the effectiveness and safety of topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the management of acute anal fissure in children. METHODS: Individual children were randomised to receive GTN paste or placebo for six weeks in addition to oral senna and lactulose. Patients took laxatives alone for a further 10 weeks. Each week a research nurse telephoned families to assess pain scores and give advice. Main outcome measures were validated standardised pain scores and time to painless defaecation. RESULTS: Forty subjects were recruited from 46 eligible children; 31 children completed the trial (13 in the GTN group and 18 in the placebo group). No differences in the proportion of those achieving pain free defaecation with relation to time were seen between the two groups. Similarly, there were no significant differences in pain scores between the two groups over the 16 week study period. However, in both groups pain scores had decreased significantly. There were no differences in the incidence of rectal bleeding, faecal soiling, presence of visible fissure, skin tag, or faecal loading at outpatient review at the time of recruitment, or at 6 weeks and 16 weeks. No serious adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 0.2% GTN paste is ineffective in the treatment of acute anal fissures in childhood. However the overall fissure healing rate is high (84%) with associated reduction in pain scores, suggesting that a nurse based treatment programme can achieve a high rate of fissure healing.

Publication Types: PMID: 11668104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1718983


80. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves]

Kojima T, Kishi M, Sekita S, Satake M.

Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Laboratory: 1-1-1, Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0815, Japan.

The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

Publication Types: PMID: 11577394 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81. [Clinical and experimental study on using Cassia angustifolia extract as enema after abdominal operation]

Wang M, Yan S, Wang J.

Qingdao Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shandong 266002.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect and mechanism of using Cassia angustifolia extract (CAE) in treating gastrointestinal tract dysfunction after abdominal operations. METHODS: Enema administration of CAE (Clyster method) was used. RESULTS: The result of 130 patients was very effective in reducing the rate of gastrointestinal decompression, accelerating the restitution of borborygmi and the time of exhaustion. Animal experiment showed the CAE function is very obvious in enhancing the bowel movement of rats (P < 0.05). It can enhance peristalsis and contraction amplitude of vibration in the isolated ileum of rats (P < 0.05). It can push on the charcoal powder in intestinal tract of mice obviously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CAE could regulate disordered function of gastrointestinal tract after abdominal operations.

Publication Types: PMID: 11475731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82. Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

Chaubey M, Kapoor VP.

Phytochemistry Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, -226 001, Lucknow, India.

Cassia angustifolia Vahl (family: Caesalpiniaceae) is a fast growing and spreading Indian shrub of which seeds, pods and leaves are extensively used for pharmaceutical applications. The seeds have been found to be an alternative source of commercial gums. The structural aspects of the galactomannans have been determined for a better understanding of its properties. The purified seed galactomannan contains mannose:galactose in a ratio of 2.90. The average molecular weight (M(w)) is 9.66x10(4) and the intrinsic viscosity (eta) is 209 mL/g. Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the gum has the basic structure of legume galactomannans with a main chain of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl units to which single alpha-(1-->6)-D-linked galactopyranosyl units are attached through block pattern.

Publication Types: PMID: 11438100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83. [Liver toxicity of drugs of plant origin]

Stickel F, Seitz HK, Hahn EG, Schuppan D.

Medizinische Klinik I mit Poliklinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.

Herbal drugs are widely used and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Recently, reports have mounted about hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies which ranges from mild liver enzyme alterations to chronic liver disease and liver failure. Hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbs has been recognized, e.g. during treatment of patients with atopic eczema. However, the toxic compounds remain to be determined. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease may result from pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are contained in numerous plants worldwide. Teucrium chamaedrys, commonly referred to as germander, may cause hepatitis and even liver cirrhosis. Significant hepatotoxicity has also been observed after the ingestion of chaparral. Recently, greater celandine, which is widely used for biliary disorders and dyspepsia, was identified as a cause of cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatotoxic reactions have also been observed after the ingestion of Atractylis gummifera, Callilepsis laureola, Senna, Kavapyrone and Pulegium. The aim of this review is to summarize potentially hepatotoxic herbal remedies, to further elucidate their mechanisms of toxicity and thereby underline the likelihood of plants to be the cause of liver damage.

Publication Types: PMID: 11324140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84. Toxicity testing of Senna occidentalis seed in rabbits.

Tasaka AC, Weg R, Calore EE, Sinhorini IL, Dagli ML, Haraguchi M, Górniak SL.

Research Center for Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The effect was investigated of administering ground Senna occidentalis seeds to rabbits in different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) in the ration. The experiment lasted 30 days and the toxic effects of the plant were evaluated on the basis of weight gain, histopathological, biochemical and morphometric parameters, as well as histochemistry and electron microscopy. Animals that received the ration containing 4% ground S. occidentalis seeds gained less weight (p < 0.05) and died in the third week. Histopathology revealed that the heart and liver were the main organs affected, with myocardial necrosis and centrolobular degeneration. There was a reduction in cytochrome oxidase activity in the glycogenolytic fibres, together with muscle atrophy, confirmed by the morphometric studies. Electron microscopy of the liver cells revealed dilated mitochondria, with destruction of the internal cristae.

Publication Types: PMID: 11305748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


85. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Asian medicinal plants used in dermatological disorders.

Cuéllar MJ, Giner RM, Recio MC, Máñez S, Ríos JL.

Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n. 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

The topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Cassia angustifolia, Rheum palmatum, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense and Scutellaria baicalensis, plants used in traditional East Asian medicine against different skin disorders, was studied. Though in different degree, all the extracts significantly inhibited the edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in both single or multiple application, oxazolone, and arachidonic acid (AA). None of the extracts inhibited in vitro the activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja naja.

Publication Types: PMID: 11295297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


86. [Pharmacological effect of cortex Magnoliae officinalis on digestion system]

Zhu Z, Zhang M, Shen Y, Wang H.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Xi'an 710003.

Experiments have shown that the ethanol extract of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis 5 g/kg, 15 g/kg may significantly inhibit HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice as well as Cassia angustifolia Leaf-induced experimental diarrhea in mice. 3 g/kg and 10 g/kg have a marked choleretic effect on rats. These results show that Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis helps improve the condition of digestion.

Publication Types: PMID: 11243189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87. Cassine, an antimicrobial alkaloid from Senna racemosa.


Sansores-Peraza P, Rosado-Vallado M, Brito-Loeza W, Mena-Rejón GJ, Quijano L.


Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, 41 No. 421 Col. Industrial, 97150 Mérida Yucatán, Mexico.

The leaves of Senna racemosa yielded the piperidine alkaloid cassine and an inositol methyl ether. Antimicrobial screening of the compounds revealed antibacterial activity of cassine with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and 5.0 mg/ml for Candida albicans.

Publication Types: PMID: 11077177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


88. Estimation of individual sennosides in plant materials and marketed formulations by an HPTLC method.

Shah SA, Ravishankara MN, Nirmal A, Shishoo CJ, Rathod IS, Suhagia BN.

L. M. College of Pharmacy, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, India. lmcp2000@hotmail.com

Senna is a well-known drug, used in the Ayurvedic and Allopathic systems of medicine, and is a treatment for constipation. The purgative action of senna and its formulations is due to the presence of sennosides A and B. An HPTLC method has been developed for the determination of individual sennosides (A, B, C, D) without any derivatization in marketed formulations (three tablet formulations, two granule formulations and one liquid formulation) and plant materials (senna leaf and pod). The methanolic solution of a sample was applied on a pre-coated silica gel G60 F254 TLC plate (E. Merck.) and was developed using n-propanol : ethyl acetate : water : glacial acetic acid (3 : 3 : 2 : 0.1 v/v) as the mobile phase. The relative band speeds (Rf values) obtained were 0.35, 0.25, 0.61, 0.46 for sennosides A, B, C and D, respectively. The densitometric response was monitored at 366nm. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration ranges 193-1356, 402-2817, 71-497 and 132-927 ng per spot for sennosides A, B, C, and D, respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9978, 0.9987, 0.9939 and 0.9983 respectively for sennosides A, B, C and D. The result obtained with the HPTLC method for total sennoside content was compared with the results using the pharmacopoeial methods (spectrophotometric (British Pharmacopoeia) and spectrofluorimetric (United States Pharmacopeia) using the 'F' test). The results revealed no significant difference in the three different methods for estimation of total sennoside. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate and rapid. It can be used for routine quality control of sennosides or senna-containing formulations for individual sennosides.

PMID: 10813557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

Senna G, Roncarolo D, Dama A, Mistrello G.

Clinical Chemistry and Hematology Laboratory, Azienda Ospedaliera di Verona, Italy.

Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

Publication Types: PMID: 10780800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90. No clastogenic activity of a senna extract in the mouse micronucleus assay.

Mengs U, Grimminger W, Krumbiegel G, Schuler D, Silber W, Völkner W.

Madaus, Ostmerheimer Strasse 198, D-51109, Cologne, Germany.

In previous studies, an analytically well-defined senna extract, commonly used as a laxative, gave positive responses in vitro in the Ames test and in the CHO assay. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic activity of the same senna extract in an in vivo genotoxicity assay by means of the generally acknowledged MNT. After administration of an oral dose of 2000 mg senna extract/kg to NMRI mice of both genders, which is equivalent to 119 mg potential rhein/kg, 5.74 mg potential aloeemodin/kg and 0. 28 mg potential emodin/kg, there were no elevated levels of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Kinetic studies were performed in parallel to demonstrate target organ availability. Highest concentrations in the plasma were reached after 1 h with 3.4 microg rhein/ml and 0.065 microg aloeemodin/ml. In all cases, emodin was below the limit of quantification. From the results, the in vitro clastogenic activity of the senna extract could not be confirmed in the mouse micronucleus assay. Together with further negative in vivo genotoxicity studies with anthranoids, the conclusion can be drawn that there is no indication so far demonstrating a genotoxic risk for patients taking senna laxatives.

PMID: 10521682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91. [Analgesics and laxatives as risk factors for cancer in the efferent urinary tract--results of the Berlin Urothelial Carcinoma Study]

Bronder E, Klimpel A, Helmert U, Greiser E, Molzahn M, Pommer W.

Institut für Nieren- und Hochdruckforschung Berlin (INHF).

A retrospective case-control study (1990-1995), the Berlin Urothelial Cancer Study (BUS), examined analgesics and laxatives as risks for the induction of urothelial cancer in renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Especially for renal pelvis cancer could observe substance and dose specific risk of compound analgesics. The analgesic substances Phenacetin, Paracetamol, Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and Pyrazolones were assessed. Besides a risk of contact laxatives (chemical or anthranoide ingredients) for urothelial cancer was found, not yet described. The highest risk shows the anthranoide plant Senna. Thus this study confirms the risk of specific analgesic ingredients and found an evidence for a new risk of contact laxatives. As both, analgesics and contact laxatives, are typical OTC--("Over the counter") products, a severe controlling is demanded and for laxatives further studies are needed.

Publication Types: PMID: 10436491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

Pålsson K, Jaenson TG.

Department of Zoology, Uppsala University, Sweden.

By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity.The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

Publication Types: PMID: 9924960 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93. Genotoxicity of sennosides on the bone marrow cells of mice.

Mukhopadhyay MJ, Saha A, Dutta A, De B, Mukherjee A.

Centre for Advanced Studies on Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.

Preparations of a number of plants which contain hydroxyanthraquinones as active constituents are used worldwide for their laxative effect. Anthraquinone glycosides of Cassia angustifolia and C. fistula were investigated for their ability to induce a clastogenic effect on the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. The endpoints screened were chromosomal aberrations and frequency of aberrant cells. Oral exposure to doses of these anthraquinones and their equivalent amount in leaf and pod extracts did not induce significant numbers of chromosomal aberrations or aberrant cells. The results indicate that anthraquinone sennoside B and rhein are weakly genotoxic.

Publication Types: PMID: 9771555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94. Muscle atrophy induced in broiler chicks by parts of Senna occidentalis seeds.

Haraguchi M, Calore EE, Dagli ML, Cavaliere MJ, Calore NM, Weg R, Raspantini PC, Górniak SL.


Section of Pharmacology, Biological Institute of São Paulo, Brazil.

Senna occidentalis (formerly Cassia occidentalis) is a common contaminant of agricultural commodities. It is toxic to cattle and poultry, reportedly being responsible for skeletal myodegeneration in these animals. All parts of the plant present toxicity, but the seeds are the most toxic. The toxin(s) responsible for the myodegeneration have not been definitively identified, nor is it known which part of the seeds is most toxic. Intoxication by this plant leads to weight loss with considerable economic repercussions. The effects of the whole seed and of parts of S. occidentalis seeds (1% in commercial feed) were compared on the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chicks intoxicated from birth until 22 days of life. There were severe clinical signals and reduced body weight in birds that received the external tegment of the seed, whereas no adverse effects were observed in birds that received the whole seed or other parts of the seed. Histological and morphometric studies showed an intense muscle fibre atrophy (both type 1 and type 2 fibres were affected) in the group that received 1% external tegment. This study may be the first step to identifying the substance(s) involved in this pathological process.

Publication Types: PMID: 9686441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95. Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) toxicosis in cattle.

Kerr LA, Kelch WJ.

University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA.

Four of approximately 15 dry cows introduced on a 10-acre fescue-clover-orchard grass-Dallis grass pasture in East Tennessee became recumbent. Clinical findings included depression, muscle tremors, increased heart and respiratory rates, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and elevated creatinine phosphokinase. Three cows recovered; 1 died. Differential diagnoses considered were hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, rabies and toxicoses from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed), Quercus spp (oak), Cassia spp (senna) oxalate (Aspergillus niger or flavus), mycotoxicosis, lead, arsenic or insecticides. Pigweed toxicosis was confirmed based on clinical and postmortem findings, partially ingested pigweed in the pasture, and ruling out other possible causes. Several factors probably contributed to this incident: since the cattle were newly introduced to the pasture, the cattle may have been attracted to the pigweed in the new pasture and became addicted to it; their rumen microflora had little time to acclimate to the pigweed; and dry weather produced poor forage quality thus forcing the cows to eat the pigweed.

Publication Types: PMID: 9682407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


96. Purification and partial characterization of a peroxidase from plant cell cultures of Cassia didymobotrya and biotransformation studies.

Vitali A, Botta B, Delle Monache G, Zappitelli S, Ricciardi P, Melino S, Petruzzelli R, Giardina B.

C.N.R. Centro Chimica dei Recettori e delle Molecole Biologicamente Attive, Istituto di Chimica e Chimica Clinica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università Cattolica S. Cuore, L.go F. Vito 1, 00168 Roma, Italy. a.vitali@uniserv.ccr.rm.cnr.it

An acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) produced by cell suspension cultures of Cassia didymobotrya (wild senna) was purified from culture medium collected on the 29th day. The enzyme was shown to be a glycoprotein with a pI of 3.5, a molecular mass of approx. 43 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 50 kDa by gel filtration. The N-terminal sequence was very similar to those of other plant peroxidases. The peroxidase was characterized by a high specificity towards coniferyl alcohol and other natural phenolics such as guaiacol and ferulic and caffeic acids. These findings suggest that the enzyme is involved in lignification processes of the cell wall. Moreover, the enzyme was able to catalyse the oxidation of 4,3',4'-trihydroxychalcone and 4, 3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone to the corresponding 3, 3'-biflavanones, as mixtures of racemic and meso forms.

Publication Types: PMID: 9531492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1219383


97. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

Cavaliere MJ, Calore EE, Haraguchi M, Górniak SL, Dagli ML, Raspantini PC, Calore NM, Weg R.

Section of Pathology, Emflio Ribas Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

Publication Types: PMID: 9262958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98. Experimental mitochondrial myopathy induced by chronic intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds.

Calore EE, Cavaliere MJ, Haraguchi M, Górniak SL, Dagli ML, Raspantini PC, Perez Calore NM.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo,Brazil.

Histochemical and electron microscopic studies of biceps femoris, pectoralis major and rectus femoris of chronically treated birds with seeds of the poisonous plant Senna occidentalis (0.2% external/internal tegment), were performed. The muscles had similar features of human mitochondrial myopathy as ragged-red fibers, cytochrome-oxidase negative fibers, and weak activity of the oxidative enzymes. Fibers with lipid storage were also present. Acid phosphatase activity in rare muscle fibers was also detected, and represents probably a secondary degenerative process. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. The present study presents a new experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy that may be useful for the best knowledge of this group of diseases and for experimental trials of drugs that could reverse the mitochondrial impairment in the mitochondrial myopathies.

Publication Types: PMID: 9077488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99. Volatile constituents of the dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia (Sennae folium).

Schultze W, Jahn K, Richter R.

Institut für Pharmazie, Abteilung Pharmazeutische Biologie, Bundesstr. 43, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.

The official drug Sennae folium (obtained from Cassia angustifolia and/or C. acutifolia) was found to contain small amounts of volatiles (0.047% based on dry weight) which were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS. More than 200 compounds could be detected, 122 of them were identified, representing about 90.7% of the peak area of the total mixture. The volatile constituents can be classified into monoterpenoids (8.8% for sample A and 34.6% for B), sesquiterpenoids (4.2% and 4.0%, respectively), phenylpropanoids (4.2%/15.2%), fatty acids and esters (54.3%/14.2%), and miscellaneous compounds (19.3%/22.7%). Apart from hexadecanoic acid which was strong in both samples (36.8%/9.7%), the occurrence of menthol, geranylacetone, and (E)-anethole is of interest.

PMID: 17252494 [PubMed]

100. Antimalarial activity in crude extracts of Malawian medicinal plants.

Connelly MP, Fabiano E, Patel IH, Kinyanjui SM, Mberu EK, Watkins WM.

Chemistry Department, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi.

Aqueous and organic fractions from Cassia abbreviata, Senna petersiana (both Caesalpiniaceae) and Azanza garckeana (Malvaceae) were tested for in-vitro antimalarial activity against the multi-drug-resistant, Vietnam-Smith strain of Plasmodium falciparum; VI/S. Both roots and leaves from these Malawian medicinal plants were investigated. High activity, with a median inhibitory concentration < 3 micrograms/ml, was seen in the organic fractions of C. abbreviata and S. petersiana, the two species most commonly cited by traditional healers in an ethnobotanical investigation of Malawian antimalarials. Extracts of A. garckeana showed weaker activity. Biologically active compounds have thus been detected within species of the family Caesalpiniaceae. Ethnobotanical investigation appears to be useful in identifying plants with antimalarial activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 9039271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101. Polysaccharides from the seeds of Senna multijuga.

Rechia CG, Sierakowski MR, Ganter JL, Reicher F.

Department of Chemistry and Physics, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

The seeds of Senna multijuga were extracted with water or 1% acetic acid and treated with ethanol, resulting in two insoluble fractions. After purification, the major one (FIA, 23%) was shown to be a galactomannan (Man:Gal 2.3:1; [alpha] = +54.6; [eta] = 1340 ml g-1). It consists of a main chain of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues substituted at O6 by single-unit alpha-D-galactopyranosyl side chains. The second fraction (FIB, 2.5%) was an O-acetyl-glucuronoarabinoxylan from the seed coats (O-acetyl 8.3 mol%; glucuronic acid 11.7%, Xyl:Ara ratio 20:1), which showed a predominance of 4-O-substituted Xylp units (84.4%), branched at O3 with non-reducing end units of Xylp, Araf and glucuronic acid. The O-acetyl positions in D-xylosyl units are at O2 (4.8%), O3 (4.4%) and O2,3 (0.9%). The ratio between O3 and O2 determined by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is 1.5:1.

Publication Types: PMID: 8789348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102. Local nasal immunotherapy for birch allergic rhinitis with extract in powder form.

Andri L, Senna G, Andri G, Dama A, Givanni S, Betteli C, Dimitri G, Falagiani P, Mezzelani P.

Unit of Clinical Allergology, Verona General Hospital, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Traditional subcutaneous immunotherapy has been proved effective in birch pollenosis. It has, however, some drawbacks as systemic reactions, which are rare but important. Local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT) represents a potential safer route of allergen administration. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of local nasal immunotherapy by means of an extract in powder form as treatment of birch allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Thirty birch allergic patients have been selected on the basis of a positive history, skin test, radioallergosorbent test assay (RAST) and specific nasal challenge. Two 15 patient groups were randomly assigned to the active treatment or to the placebo one. Treatment lasted 22 weeks (14 for the build-up phase and eight for maintenance period) and symptoms were recorded during the treatment and the birch pollen season. RESULTS: The clinical efficacy of LNIT is suggested by a significant reduction of medication score only in the treated group during the pollen season, although the symptom score was significantly lower in the treated group for 1 week only. Moreover, a significant increase of specific nasal threshold dose was observed after treatment only in the active treated group. Mild adverse reaction to LNIT, limited to the upper respiratory tract, were reported during the treatment in the active group, but they did not interfere with LNIT schedule. No asthmatic or systemic reaction were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that LNIT with allergen in powder form has proven clinically effective in the treatment of birch allergic rhinitis. Further studies are needed to establish whether this treatment can be considered a real alternative to the traditional subcutaneous immunotherapy in birch allergic rhinitis.

Publication Types: PMID: 8581842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103. Cassia senna inhibits mutagenic activities of benzo[a]-pyrene, aflatoxin B1, shamma and methyl methanesulfonate.

al-Dakan AA, al-Tuffail M, Hannan MA.

Department of Biological and Medical Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Ethanol extract of Senokot tablets (Cassia senna concentrate used as vegetable laxative), was found to be non-mutagenic while it inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, shamma, aflatoxin B1 and methyl methanesulfonate in the Ames histidine reversion assay using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98. While the Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenicity of promutagens (i.e. metabolic activation dependent) like benzo[a]pyrene and shamma, it reduced the mutagenic activity of the direct acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate by only 58%. The mutagen aflatoxin B1 showed a 25-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants per plate at low concentrations (1.0-4.0 micrograms/plate) in the presence of metabolic activation system while at high concentrations (10.0-30.0 micrograms/plate) it proved to be weakly mutagenic (with a 5-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants/plate) without metabolic activation. The Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenic effect of low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of metabolic activation but not that resulting from higher concentrations without metabolic activation. The results obtained with benzo[a]pyrene, shamma and aflatoxin B1 indicated that the antimutagenic effects of Senokot extract could be largely due to an interaction with the metabolic process involved in the activation of procarcinogens. However, the results obtained with methyl methanesulfonate suggested that factors in Senokot may also interact with direct mutagens to produce some antimutagenic effects. An ethanol extract of crude senna leaves found to be weakly mutagenic also inhibited (though less than Senokot) the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene suggesting that the antimutagenic principle is present in the complex plant material itself.

PMID: 8577642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104. Coffee Senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil.

Barth AT, Kommers GD, Salles MS, Wouters F, de Barros CS.


Departmento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Four 4-5-y-old cows out of a group of 20 developed a toxic myopathy approximately 10 d after being started on a ration contaminated with 21.5% Senna occidentalis beans. Clinical signs included progressive muscle weakness, incoordination of hindlimbs, reluctance to move, dragging of the tip of the hooves of the hindlimbs, and sternal and lateral recumbency. Gross lesions included white to whitish-yellow discolored areas of several groups of skeletal muscle in various regions of the body, but more markedly in the hindlimbs. Significant histopathological changes were restricted to skeletal muscles with variable degrees of segmental degenerative myopathy associated with reparative events. The earliest change seen at electron microscopy of affected skeletal muscles was mitochondrial swelling. More advanced changes ranged from disruption of sarcoplasm and myofibrils to complete lysis of a myofiber segment and early regeneration. Myocardial fibers had swollen mitochondria, disruption of cristae and dense matrical globules. The epidemiology, clinical data and gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural features of S occidentalis poisoning in cattle are presented.

Publication Types: PMID: 7900275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105. Study of various rhubarbs regarding the cathartic effect and endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Harima S, Matsuda H, Kubo M.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan.

Sennoside A content in hot-water extracts from 17 varieties of rhubarb obtained from the market was measured, and their respective cathartic effects were also examined in mice. A positive correlation was confirmed between the sennoside A content and cathartic effects in our experiments. Furthermore, the effects of Shisendaio [symbol: see text], with a higher sennoside A content, and Kinmondaio [symbol: see text], with a lower sennoside A content, exhibited endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) which related closely to Oketsu symptoms, and these effects were examined in rats. Kinmondaio exhibited weak inhibition on both reducing erythrocyte deformability and prolonging euglobulin lysis time (ELT) in DIC rats. From our results, it is possible to evaluate rhubarb's cathartic effect, one of its main drug effects, by examining the rhubarb's sennoside A content. However, it is difficult to estimate the cathartic effect according to the general market name of Rhubarb. No dramatic effect was found on the experimental models used for Oketsu symptoms such as endotoxin-induced DIC.

Publication Types: PMID: 7703978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of anthranoids.

de Witte P.

Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Biologie en Fytofarmacologie, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Anthranoid derivatives are used all over the world as a treatment for constipation. These compounds are present in several drugs of plant origin, especially as O- or C-glycosides. Besides featuring different substituents, the aglycone might consist of an anthraquinone, an anthrone or a dianthrone. So far, detailed information concerning their metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics is available only in a few cases. The best characterized compounds are sennoside, a dianthrone O-glycoside present in senna leaves and senna pods, and its aglycone (rhein anthrone). After oral administration, sennoside is degraded only in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, releasing its active metabolite rhein anthrone. Nowadays, this process is understood at the molecular level. A study with 14C-labelled rhein anthrone administered intracecally to rats, revealed that the compound is scarcely absorbed. Since on the contrary its anthraquinone equivalent is absorbed to a much larger extent, it is inferred that dianthrone- or anthrone-glycosides exhibit a lower systemic availability than anthraquinone O-glycosides.

Publication Types: PMID: 8234447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107. Safety and efficacy of a bulk laxative containing senna versus lactulose in the treatment of chronic constipation in geriatric patients.

Kinnunen O, Winblad I, Koistinen P, Salokannel J.

Kontinkangas Hospital of Oulu, Finland.

Thirty geriatric long-stay patients aged 65-94 years (mean 81.8) participated in the trial the aim of which was to examine bulk laxative plus senna (Agiolax) in the treatment of chronic constipation using lactulose (Levolac) as a reference medicine. Bulk laxative plus senna (daily doses 14.8 g) produced more frequent (p < 0.05) bowel habits (4.5 vs. 2.2-1.9/week) than lactulose (daily doses 20.1 g). Both laxatives proved to be safe to use. Our study indicated bulk laxative plus senna to be more efficient in treating constipation in geriatric long-stay patients.

Publication Types: PMID: 8234438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108. A comparison of Agiolax and lactulose in elderly patients with chronic constipation.

Passmore AP, Davies KW, Flanagan PG, Stoker C, Scott MG.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Queen's University of Belfast, UK.

In a double-blind crossover study the efficacies of Agiolax, a combination of fibre and senna pod, and lactulose were compared in 77 long-stay elderly patients with chronic constipation. Mean daily bowel frequency, stool consistency and ease of evacuation were significantly greater with Agiolax than lactulose. The recommended dose was exceeded more frequently with lactulose than Agiolax (chi 2 = 8.38, p < 0.01). Adverse effects were not different for the 2 treatments. In long-stay elderly patients with chronic constipation Agiolax and lactulose were well tolerated, but Agiolax proved a more effective treatment.

Publication Types: PMID: 8234437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109. The senna drug and its chemistry.

Franz G.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, FRG.

Senna consists of the dried leaflets or fruits of Cassia senna (C. acutifolia) known in commerce as Alexandrian senna and of Cassia angustifolia commonly known as Tinnevelly senna. The senna plants are small shrubs of Leguminosae cultivated either in Somalia, the Arabian peninsula and near the Nile river. Tinnevelly senna is obtained from cultivated plants mainly in South India and Pakistan. Owing to the careful way in which the plant is harvested, the leaflets of the drug are usually little broken. Damaged leaves and lower quality products are often used for making galenicals. The senna pods (fruits) are collected during the same period as the leaves, then dried and separated into various qualities. The active principle of Senna was first isolated and characterized by Stoll in 1941. The first two glycosides were identified and attributed to the anthraquinone family. These were found to be dimeric products of aloe emodin and/or rhein which were named sennoside A and sennoside B. They both hydrolyze to give the aglycones sennidin A and B and two molecules of glucose. Later work confirmed these findings and further demonstrated the presence of sennosides C and D. Small quantities of monomeric glycosides and free anthraquinones seem to be present as well. The active constituents of the pods are similar to those of the leaves but present in larger quantities. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxymusicin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside.Both compounds can be utilized to distinguish between the Alexandrian senna and the India senna, since tinnevellin glucoside is only found in the latter and the first only in the C. senna.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types: PMID: 8234429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110. Rhein and aloe-emodin kinetics from senna laxatives in man.

Krumbiegel G, Schulz HU.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Madaus AG, Köln, FRG.

Therapeutic doses of two laxatives (Agiolax and Sennatin) were repeatedly administered to 10 healthy volunteers in a two-way change-over design. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after the first dose, and plasma levels of total aloe-emodin and rhein were determined simultaneously with a sensitive (lower limit of quantification: 0.5 ng aloe-emodin and 2.5 ng rhein per millilitre plasma) and specific fluorometric HPLC method. Aloe-emodin was not detectable in any plasma sample of any subject. Rhein concentration time courses showed highest levels of 150-160 ng/ml and peak maxima at 3-5 h and 10-11 h after dosing probably according to absorption of free rhein and rhein released from prodrugs (e.g. sennosides) by bacterial metabolism, respectively.

PMID: 8234418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111. Mutagenicity of crude senna and senna glycosides in Salmonella typhimurium.

Sandnes D, Johansen T, Teien G, Ulsaker G.

Norwegian Medicines Control Authority, Oslo.

The mutagenicity of senna glycosides and extracts of senna folium and senna fructus was investigated in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay. Senna glycosides were inactive in all strains, except for a slight, but significant increase in mutant frequency in TA102 in the absence and presence of liver microsomes. Extracts of senna fructus and senna folium demonstrated weak activity in TA97a, TA100 and TA102 in the presence of liver microsomes, and in TA97a and TA102 in the absence of liver microsomes. A strong increase in mutant frequency (3- to 5-fold above background frequency) was observed with all extracts in TA98 in the presence of liver microsomes. This activity increased further following enzymatic hydrolysis with hesperidinase of extracts of senna fructus from one source, and could be correlated to the release of the flavonol aglycones kaempferol and quercetin. The weak or lacking activity of anthraquinone aglycones in the tested strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicates that mutagenicity can not be attributed solely to the anthraquinone content of these plant materials. The chemical nature of other mutagenic components has not been elucidated.

PMID: 1438037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


112. [Pharmacological study on spleen-stomach warming and analgesic actions of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.]

Zhu Z, Shen Y, Zhang M, Chen G, Ma S.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Xian.

This study presents an observation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Aconitum carmichaeli decoction on water-immersion stress induced gastric ulcer in mice and 0.6 mol/L HCl induced gastric ulcer in rats. The observation showed that the decoction was resistant to the castor oil induced and Cassia angustifolia leaf induced experimental diarrhea in mice, and also had marked analgesic action. It is thus suggested that Aconitum carmichaeli is useful clinically as a spleen-stomach warming and analgesic agent in traditional Chinese medicine.

Publication Types: PMID: 1418555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


113. Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants.

Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KH, Blomster RN.

Department of Microbiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201.

To determine the extent of antiviral activity present in a number of plant extracts, hot glycerin extracts were prepared from Rheum officinale, Aloe barbadensis, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshianus, and Cassia angustifolia and their virucidal effects were tested against herpes simplex virus type 1. All the plant extracts inactivated the virus. The active components in these plants were separated by thin-layer chromatography and identified as anthraquinones. A purified sample of aloe emodin was prepared from aloin, and its effects on the infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, varicella-zoster virus, pseudorabies virus, influenza virus, adenovirus, and rhinovirus were tested by mixing virus with dilutions of aloe emodin for 15 min at 37 degrees C, immediately diluting the sample, and assaying the amount of infectious virus remaining in the sample. The results showed that aloe emodin inactivated all of the viruses tested except adenovirus and rhinovirus. Electron microscopic examination of anthraquinone-treated herpes simplex virus demonstrated that the envelopes were partially disrupted. These results show that anthraquinones extracted from a variety of plants are directly virucidal to enveloped viruses.

Publication Types: PMID: 1810179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC245413


114. Pseudohyperaldosteronism from liquorice-containing laxatives.

Scali M, Pratesi C, Zennaro MC, Zampollo V, Armanini D.

Istituto di Semeiotica Medica, University of Padova, Italy.

Four cases of pseudohyperaldosteronism due to chronic ingestion of liquorice-containing laxatives are described. All patients had hypertension and hypokalemia with suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone; the diagnosis was based only on retrospective grounds. In patients with hypokalemia and hypertension a possibility of such a cause must be excluded to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures.

Publication Types: PMID: 2096161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115. Chemical structure and biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia leaves.

Müller BM, Kraus J, Franz G.

The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide fraction was separated into two subfractions S1 and S2 consisting of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid. Further fractionation of the predominant S1 by GPC gave two fractions S1A and S1B with an average molecular weight of 2 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(5) d, respectively. Methylation analysis of S1A showed the presence of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid (31.0%), 1,2-linked rhamnose (14.5%), 1,2,4-linked rhamnose (15.8%), 1,3,6-linked galactose (15.3%), smaller amounts of 1,3-linked arabinose, 1.5-linked arabinose, and terminal galactose and arabinose residues. Mild acid hydrolysis of S1A indicated that the backbone consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and 1,2-linked rhamnose residues in the ratio of 1:1. Every second rhamnose is connected via C-4 to arabinogalactan sidechains. The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide fractions was tested against the solid Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. Only S1A exhibited a significant antitumor activity with an inhibition rate of 51%.

Publication Types: PMID: 2616672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116. Cathartic activity of Cassia species.

Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Kapadia Z, Badar Y.


Pharmaceutical Division, P.C.S.LR. Laboratories, Karachi-39, Pakistan.

Cathartic activity of the three Cassia species i.e. Cassia angustifolia, C. fistula and C. holosericea has been assessed by Lou's method. Comparative study revealed that C. angustifolia is more active as compared to C. fistula and C. holosericea. Furthermore, the comparative study of their Sennoside content also supports the above finding, as they bear some correlation between Cathartic activity and Sennoside contents. The legumes of all the three species were found to be mere active as compared to leaves in their Cathartic activity.

PMID: 16414646 [PubMed]

117. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine]

Zhang MF, Shen YQ.

Berberine sulfate (Ber) 40 and 80 mg/kg ig reduced the purging effects of castor oil or Cassia angustifolia leaf in mice, but did not affect the gastrointestinal transport function of Chinese ink in normal mice. Ber 60 mg/kg ig significantly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by ip 0.7% acetic acid in mice. Ber 20 and 50 mg/kg sc markedly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by histamine 100 micrograms/0.1 ml ic in rats. Ber 4 and 8 mg/kg sc produced obvious inhibition in the xylene-induced swelling of mouse ear. The anti-inflammatory effects were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that the antidiarrheal effect of Ber is relative to its restriction against exudative inflammation to a certain extent.

Publication Types: PMID: 2816420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118. Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice.

Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Bailey CJ, Flatt PR.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, U.K.

Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice. The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes, but bayberry (Cinnamomum tamala), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), senna (Cassia occidentalis) and the herbal mixture did not alter these parameters. Bearberry, mistletoe and tarragon retarded the body weight loss but none of the eight treatments significantly altered plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. These studies suggest that bearberry, golden seal, mistletoe and tarragon may counter some of the symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes without, however, affecting glycemic control.

Publication Types: PMID: 2750445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119. Chemical and biological analyses of Nigerian Cassia species for laxative activity.

Elujoba AA, Ajulo OO, Iweibo GO.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

The leaves of 10 Cassia species (Leguminosae), cultivated in Nigeria, were assayed spectrophotometrically for combined anthraquinone content and also pharmacologically for their laxative properties in male albino rats using official senna leaves (Cassia acutifolia Del.) as the reference standard. Leaves of C. podocarpa Guill, and Perr. and of senna had identical laxative potency. The results of both the chemical and the biological experiments suggested that C. alata L. and C. podocarpa are the most likely candidates for drug development in Nigeria. The use of a laxative index is proposed for the comparative study of Cassia (or any plant species) and its possible application to the quality control of these drugs is discussed.

PMID: 2490529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120. Structure of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Cassia angustifolia.

Alam N, Gupta PC.

Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India.

A water-soluble galactomannan consisting of D-galactose and D-mannose in the molar ratio 3:2 has been isolated from the seeds of CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA. Hydrolytic fission of the methylated polysaccharide resulted in three methylated sugars: (a) 2, 3-di- O-methyl- D-mannose, (b) 2, 3, 4-tri- O-methyl- D-galactose, and (c) 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra- O-methyl- D-galactose in the molar ratio 2:1:2. Partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaceharide afforded five oligosaccharides: (a) epimelibiose, (b) galactobiosylmannose, (c) mannobiose, (d) mannotriose, and (e) galactobiose. Periodate oxidation of the polysaceharide indicated 59.7% end group while methylation gave 60%. Sodium borohydride reduction of the periodate oxidised polysaceharide and subsequent hydrolysis revealed the presence of (1-->4) and (1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. Thus, the main chain of the galactomannan was found to consist of (1-->4)-linked mannoypyranosyl units having beta-glycosidic bonds while (1-->6)-linked alpha-glycosidically bonded galactopyranosyl units form the branching points.

PMID: 17345316 [PubMed - in process]

121. [Clinical study of a new preparation from plantago seeds and senna pods]

Bossi S, Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, Trovato R, Strata A.

The lack of fiber in the western diet may contribute to the development of several diseases including gastrointestinal disorders; the clinical effects of a new substance (AGIOLAX) made from plantago seeds and senna pods were studied. 100 patients of both sexes, aged from 40 to 60 years (30 with diabetes mellitus, 40 with obesity and 30 with hyperlipidemia) were treated; everyone complained a slowness, of different degree, of normal intestinal transit time or chronic constipation. The experiment was carried out without the use of a control group. Aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the product. In addition to the clinical evaluation of the symptoms, laboratory tests were performed. The patients were treated for 3 months with a daily dose of 2 teaspoons every evening. In the majority of the subjects a good clinical response was obtained; 88% of the patients presented a normalization of the gastrointestinal transit time; only 12% of them did not respond satisfactorily to the substance. Further the drug was well tolerated by 86% of the patients. In conclusion the authors report a good efficacy and tolerability of the product; thus they recommend its use in those disorders characterized by slow intestinal transit time and/or constipation.

Publication Types: PMID: 2955623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


122. Isolation of a new aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucoside from senna and its potentiating effect on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice.

Nakajima K, Yamauchi K, Kuwano S.

Two aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucosides (I and II) were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl by successive column chromatography with Amberlite XAD-2, silica gel, Polyamide C-200 and Sephadex LH-20. The stereostructures of I and II were elucidated as trans and meso isomers at 10-10', respectively, from the patterns of the ultraviolet absorption spectra and circular dichroism curves. This is the first report of isolation of diglucoside I from senna. Despite the lack of purgative activity, diglucoside I exerts a potentiating effect of about 1.3 times on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice when even 15% is included in the mixture. The difference between I and a third active glycoside based on aloe-emodin is also discussed.

PMID: 2867138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123. Stimulation of PGE2 synthesis and water and electrolyte secretion by senna anthraquinones is inhibited by indomethacin.

Beubler E, Kollar G.

The effect of dried senna pod extract, containing 10% sennoside B, on colonic electrolyte and fluid transport was examined in the anaesthetized rat in-situ. Oral administration of senna pod extract dose-dependently (17.5-30 mg kg-1, calculated as sennoside B) reversed net absorption of water, sodium and chloride to net secretion and increased potassium secretion. Senna pod extract stimulated the output of prostaglandin E2 into the colonic lumen. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by pretreatment of the rats with indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) significantly inhibited the effects of senna pod extract (17.5-30 mg kg-1) both on net fluid transport and on prostaglandin E2 synthesis. The inhibitory effect of indomethacin on net fluid transport induced by senna pod extract (30 mg kg-1) was dose-dependent. It is concluded that anthraquinones exert their laxative action at least partially via stimulation of colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, and that this secretion is mediated by stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin E2 formation.

Publication Types: PMID: 2860222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124.  Chemical identification of alexandrian and tinnevelly senna.

Lemli J, Cuveele J, Verhaeren E.

Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Biologie en Fytofarmacologie, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Differentiation of CASSIA SENNA and C. ANGUSTIFOLIA is possible by chromatographic identification of the naphthalene glycosides.

PMID: 17405008 [PubMed - in process]

125. The toxicity of Cassia senna to Nubian goats.

El Sayed NY, Abdelbari EM, Mahmoud OM, Adam SE.

Ten Nubian goats were given oral doses of the fresh fruits and leaves of Cassia senna at 1, 5, and 10 g/kg/day. Eight goats died within 30 days and two others were slaughtered in a moribund condition on days 18 and 29. The clinical signs of diarrhoea, inappetence, loss of condition, and dyspnea were well correlated with the pathological findings. There was an increase in G.O.T., ammonia, urea, and total cholesterol and a decrease in total protein in the serum of Cassia-poisoned goats. Blood sugar level was reduced and the increase in the values of Hb, PCV, and RBC was due to haemoconcentration.

Publication Types: PMID: 6880007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126. A crossover comparative study with two bulk laxatives.

Pers M, Pers B.

Twenty elderly in-patients suffering from severe constipation were treated once daily for 2 weeks with each of two bulk laxatives. The preparations were allocated randomly as the first and second preparation. Agiolax, the new preparation, contained 15 mg senna glucosides, the old preparation, Lunelax comp., contained 25 mg senna glucoside A + B per dose. Both preparations worked well and no side-effects were seen.

Publication Types: PMID: 6687578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127. Naphthalene Glycosides in Cassia senna and Cassia angustifolia.
Lemli J, Toppet S, Cuveele J, Janssen G.


Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, K. U. Leuven, Belgium.

From leaves and pods of CASSIA SENNA L. and C. ANGUSTIFOLIA V AHL. were isolated the naphthalene glycosides 6-hydroxymusizin glycoside and the new tinnevellin glycoside. The structures were established mainly by spectroscopic methods ( (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS).

PMID: 17402001 [PubMed - in process]

128. Formation and Distribution of Sennosides in Cassia angustifolia, as Determined by a Sensitive and Specific Radioimmunoassay*.

Atzorn R, Weiler EW, Zenk MH.

Lehrstuhl für Pflanzenphysiologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, West-Germany.

A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of [ (3)H]-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, [ (3)H]-sennoside A and [ (3)H]-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60 degrees C.

PMID: 17401811 [PubMed - in process]

129. Agiolax bolus in the esophagus. Report of two cases.

Sauerbruch T, Kuntzen O, Unger W.

Two cases of intermittent obstruction of the esophagus by the laxative Agiolax, proven by endoscopy and barium swallow, are described. The patients took an overdose of one and two tablespoons of Agiolax, respectively; they had no disorders of the esophagus. Symptoms of obstruction subsided spontaneously after 24 and 36 hours respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 7363873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130. Medicinal plants make a comeback.

Attisso MA.

PIP: Phytotherapy--using vegetable based drug preparations--was the primary method of disease treatment until the middle of the 19th century. Gradually, chemicals and drugs were produced only from and based on the active ingredients of these plants. The International Centre of Commerce reports that medicinal plants are still vitally important in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. The proportion of medicinal plants used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products is about 1/3 that of synthetic chemicals. Raw materials for import by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have increased form $52.9 million in 1967 to $71.2 million in 1971, with increases averaging 7% annually. Annual quantities of some plants used in preparations are: 3,000 tons of aloes; 10,000 tons of artichoke leaves; 5,000 tons of quinquina bark; 5,000 tons of senna pods; 1,000 tons of digitalis leaves; 1,000 tons of belladonna, henbane and datura leaves. An important distinction exists between medicinal plants and vegetable drugs. Medicinal plants contain one or more endogenous substances which can be used directly for medicinal purposes or in semisynthesis of preparations. Vegetable drug refers only to the part of the plant used directly in the preparation of medicines. The pure molecules in medicinal plants can be used in the synthesis of pharmaceutical products, notably steroids which are used to produce progestational substances and oral contraceptives. Medicina plants can also aid research for development of artificial mutations of the molecules to produce new drugs, an example of which is cocaine, from which synthetic local pain killers are derived. Some medicinal plants can be used as vegetable drugs for phytotherapy either on their own or to supplement chemotherapy. Vegetable drugs are especially useful for psychosomatic complaints, various cardiovascular diseases, digestive troubles, liver and gallbladder disorders, and antiseptics, both internal and external. Continued research and devleopment on the use of medicinal plants in developing countries will enrich the present range of medicines or provide a basis for further chemical and pharmacological research.

PMID: 12278407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131. Biological assay of Cassia podocarpa: a plant related to senna.

Larbi SO, Lewis RA.

Leaves of the plant, Cassia podocarpa, were collected from Opah village near Accra, and dried. A suspension of the powdered leaf was given by gavage to groups of ten mice. A record was kept of the number of wet faeces passed in 24 hours. There was a linear relationship between the log dose of leaf and the number of wet faeces. The effect was maximal between 6 and 24 hours of administration and was larger than has been noted with senna.

PMID: 1029909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132 [Predictability of the activity of drug combinations--yes or no (author's transl)]

Vogel G.

The following experiments were carried out on the question of the "predictability" of the effect of drug combinations. A methanol extract from Viscum album causes a rise in coronary perfusion in isolated and perfused (Langendorff's method) guinea pig hearts. Administration of a methanol extract from Crataegus oxyacantha results not only in a rise in coronary perfusion, but also in a positive inotropic effect. Combined application of the drugs leads to a pure addition of effects, which are therefore "predictable". Extracts from Rhamnus frangula, Rheum sinens. and Senna lead to a dose-dependent reduction in the gastro-intestinal passage time. Combining the three extracts results in a pure addition of the effects. An extract from Potentilla anserina, which when given alone lengthens the gastrointestinal passage time, antagonises the laxative effect of extracts from Rheum sinens., Rhamnus frangula and Senna. All the effects we tested in the area of the gastro-intestinal tract behaved in a purely additive way and were therefore "predictable". When given separately the ethereal oils menthol, oleum juniperi, borneol and eugenol as well as dehydrocholic acid-Na-salt and alpha-naphthyl acetic acid-Na-salt cause, in rats, a dose-dependent increase in bile flow. Combining two or three of these substances results in a pure addition of the effects. The effects of all the test substances were therefore "predictable". When given separately valepotriate, morphine, scopolamine, ajmalicine, rescinnamine, reserpinine and reserpine, as depressants of the central nervous system (CNS), lead to a dose-dependent lengthening of hexobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. However, when combined, these substances lead to a lengthening of hexobarbital sleeping time which is well above what was to be expected following application of the single substances. So, it can happen that the combination of the two single doses which, when taken separately produce no effect, leads to a lengthening of hexobarbital-induced sleeping time by more than 100 percent. In the case of CNS depressants, it is therefore true to say that their effect, when given in combination, was "unpredictable". It can be seen from these findings that, at least in the case of the tested extracts and single substances, which are all of plant origin, the "predictability" of the effect of the test substances in combination is the rule, and the "unpredictability" the exception. In addition the investigations may give further information concerning the methods as to how the question of "predictability" can be studied experimentally.

Publication Types: PMID: 1242658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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